Sumber Perekrutan di HRM

Semua yang perlu Anda ketahui tentang sumber rekrutmen. Perekrutan adalah langkah selanjutnya dalam fungsi pengadaan sumber daya manusia organisasi.

Ini melibatkan mendorong orang-orang yang berkualifikasi untuk membuat aplikasi untuk pekerjaan dengan suatu organisasi. Ini bukan hanya masalah memuaskan kebutuhan organisasi tetapi juga merupakan kegiatan yang mempengaruhi bentuk masa depan organisasi karena keberhasilan atau kegagalan organisasi tergantung pada potensi karyawan yang bekerja di dalamnya.

Rekrutmen adalah proses positif karena merangsang orang untuk melamar pekerjaan untuk meningkatkan "rasio perekrutan", berarti jumlah pelamar untuk suatu pekerjaan.

Sumber rekrutmen mungkin internal atau eksternal.

Beberapa sumber rekrutmen adalah: -

1. Promosi 2. Transfer 3. Pensiunan atau Mantan Karyawan 4. Posting Pekerjaan

Beberapa sumber rekrutmen eksternal adalah: -

1. Beriklan di Surat Kabar dan Jurnal 2. Pertukaran Pekerjaan 3. Internet (Rekrutmen E) 4. Pendidikan / Profesional / Institusi Teknis 5. Firma Pencari Eksekutif 6. Serikat sebagai Sumber 7. Pelamar yang Tidak Diminta atau Walk-in

8. Perekrutan Langsung 9. Penelepon Santai 10. Perekrutan Kampus 11. Agen Penempatan dan Konsultan Manajemen 12. Rekomendasi Karyawan 13. Kontraktor Tenaga Kerja 14. Penerbitan Web

15. Pameran Pekerjaan 16. Kontak Pribadi 17. Perburuan dan Raiding 18. Komisi Layanan 19. Nepotisme 20. Sewa 21. Bank Data.


Sumber Perekrutan di HRM: Sumber Internal dan Eksternal

Sumber Perekrutan di HRM - Sumber Internal dan Eksternal

Sumber Perekrutan Internal:

Sumber rekrutmen internal adalah dari mana lowongan diisi dari dalam organisasi. Sangat diinginkan untuk mencari pelamar dari dalam organisasi, jika mereka memiliki kualifikasi yang diperlukan untuk mengisi lowongan. Sumber rekrutmen internal termasuk personil yang sudah dalam daftar gaji organisasi. Ini juga termasuk personil yang pernah masuk daftar gaji dan ingin kembali atau yang mungkin ingin dipekerjakan kembali oleh perusahaan.

Rekrutmen dari sumber internal meliputi:

1. Promosi:

Promosi melibatkan pengalihan seorang karyawan ke posisi yang lebih tinggi dengan tanggung jawab yang lebih tinggi, status yang lebih tinggi, dan lebih banyak gaji. Promosi ini mungkin didasarkan pada senioritas dan prestasi. Lebih lanjut, ini adalah pergeseran vertikal karyawan atau pergerakan karyawan ke atas. Promosi dapat bersifat sementara atau permanen di organisasi. Promosi tanpa kenaikan gaji disebut promosi kering.

Senioritas vs. Merit :

Selalu ada konflik antara dua opsi itu, jika promosi harus didasarkan pada prestasi atau senioritas.

Kedua metode memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangan masing-masing:

Kelebihan Promosi Berdasarkan Senioritas :

(i) Ini adalah metode promosi karyawan yang sederhana dan mudah.

(ii) Metode promosi ini menciptakan disiplin dan rasa hormat terhadap personil senior dalam organisasi.

(iii) Karena promosi dapat diterima oleh semua orang, metode ini menciptakan kedamaian dalam organisasi.

(iv) Hak orang senior untuk dipromosikan diakui dalam sistem ini.

(v) Karyawan menyadari prospek masa depan pekerjaan mereka.

(vi) Tenaga kerja yang ada dapat digunakan ke tingkat optimal dengan memberi mereka pelatihan dan mempersiapkan mereka untuk pekerjaan yang lebih tinggi.

(vii) Ini adalah sistem perekrutan termurah.

Kelayakan Promosi Berdasarkan Kelayakan :

(i) Kompetensi, pengetahuan, dan inisiatif karyawan diakui dan dihargai.

(ii) Karyawan merasa bahwa kinerja mereka akan dihargai yang mengarah pada peningkatan kinerja mereka.

(iii) Personel yang kompeten dan efisien dipertahankan dalam organisasi.

(iv) Ini adalah sistem rekrutmen yang logis dan ilmiah.

Kedua metode memiliki keunggulannya sendiri, sehingga organisasi harus mengembangkan sistem seperti itu di mana kombinasi keduanya harus diikuti.

2. Transfer :

Transfer mengacu pada pengalihan karyawan dari satu pekerjaan ke pekerjaan lain tanpa perubahan tanggung jawab dan status karyawan yang drastis. Ini adalah pergeseran horizontal karyawan. Pemindahan karyawan dilakukan dari satu tempat ke tempat lain untuk kepentingan pekerjaan, pekerja, dan organisasi.

3. Pensiunan atau Mantan Karyawan :

Kadang-kadang organisasi PHK karena PHK dan setiap kali ada lowongan di organisasi, itu diisi dengan mantan karyawan ini. Kadang-kadang orang-orang yang sudah pensiun dipekerjakan kembali sebagai tanda kesetiaan mereka kepada organisasi.

Sumber Perekrutan Eksternal:

Sumber eksternal terdiri dari:

Pasar tenaga kerja yang dapat disadap melalui iklan pekerjaan di surat kabar dan jurnal; pertukaran pekerjaan; dan memberitahukan lowongan ke lembaga pendidikan, profesional, dan teknis. Saat ini, Internet (online) telah menjadi sumber rekrutmen eksternal yang sangat potensial. Rekomendasi serikat pekerja juga dapat dimasukkan dalam kategori ini.

1. Beriklan di Surat Kabar dan Jurnal:

Ini dicatat sebagai sumber populer untuk merekrut tenaga terampil, pengawas, dan kader manajerial. Posisi manajerial diisi melalui iklan terbuka di sebagian besar perusahaan. Jelas, semakin tinggi kategori karyawan, semakin besar penggunaan iklan untuk mengundang kandidat eksternal untuk perekrutan. Sebelum mengiklankan pekerjaan, analisis pekerjaan adalah suatu keharusan.

Jika tipe orang yang tepat tidak diminta untuk melamar, tidak ada jumlah wawancara atau tes yang dapat menyebabkan perekrutan yang tepat. Wawancara dan penilaian kandidat berfungsi untuk menghilangkan kandidat yang tidak cocok. Ini tidak dapat diharapkan untuk meningkatkan kualitas kandidat.

Saat menyiapkan iklan pekerjaan, seseorang harus tetap memperhatikan jenis kandidat yang paling memenuhi persyaratan pekerjaan dan fitur pekerjaan, yang akan menarik bagi orang yang memiliki kualifikasi dan pengalaman yang diperlukan. Media untuk iklan harus dipilih dengan cara itu dan harus berbeda dengan posisi yang diiklankan.

Untuk kategori posisi tertentu, mungkin perlu untuk menunjukkan ukuran dan sifat perusahaan serta prospek yang sesuai dengan pekerjaan tersebut. Deskripsi pekerjaan harus dicerminkan dalam iklan. Citra perusahaan sebagai pemberi kerja (terlepas dari citra produknya) secara langsung memengaruhi kualitas karyawan yang ia tarik. Meskipun gaji yang ditawarkan merupakan faktor penting bagi pencari kerja, itu belum tentu menjadi pertimbangan utama. Ini khususnya terjadi pada tenaga teknis.

Fasilitas untuk penelitian dan peluang untuk mengembangkan bakat mereka dan membuat tanda mereka di bidang yang dipilih sangat penting bagi mereka. Di sinilah citra perusahaan membantu. Itulah sebabnya beberapa perusahaan menyebutkan dalam iklan pencapaian teknis dan rencana pengembangan, serta kondisi kerja dan fasilitas yang tersedia.

2. Pertukaran Kerja:

Pertukaran kerja telah dibentuk oleh pemerintah untuk menyatukan para pencari kerja dan pengusaha yang mencari karyawan. Ini adalah salah satu sumber non-tradisional untuk merekrut pekerja di India. Fungsi utama Pertukaran Kerja adalah bahwa pendaftaran pencari kerja dan penempatannya terhadap permintaan diberitahukan oleh pengusaha.

Diundangkannya Pertukaran Tenaga Kerja (pemberitahuan wajib lowongan), 1959, bertujuan merasionalisasi sistem rekrutmen dan memenuhi persyaratan pengusaha dari kumpulan kandidat yang terdaftar. Di bawah undang-undang tersebut, pemberitahuan lowongan wajib untuk semua perusahaan di sektor publik.

Di sektor swasta, lowongan perlu diberitahukan hanya oleh instansi seperti yang diberitahukan oleh pemerintah yang sesuai. Pemberitahuan lowongan harus dilakukan ke bursa kerja terkait sebelum lowongan diisi.

Tetapi pemberitahuan lowongan wajib tidak dapat dianggap memaksakan kewajiban pada majikan untuk merekrut orang melalui pertukaran kerja hanya karena lowongan telah diberitahukan. Untuk pekerja dan personel non-pengawasan, ini dicatat sebagai yang paling disukai, dan untuk personel manajerial sumber rekrutmen yang paling tidak populer.

3. Internet (E-Recruitment):

Revolusi di bidang telekomunikasi telah menambah sumber rekrutmen yang sangat penting melalui internet. Perusahaan-perusahaan besar saat ini menggunakan situs web mereka untuk mendaftar pekerjaan dan menarik kandidat untuk direkrut. Selain situs mereka sendiri, perusahaan menggunakan situs populer lainnya di mana mereka sering membuat daftar pekerjaan. Sumber rekrutmen ini memberikan keuntungan kecepatan bagi pengusaha dan pelamar. Suatu pekerjaan dapat didaftar pada suatu hari dan resume dapat mulai mencapai organisasi semalam melalui email.

4. Institusi Pendidikan / Profesional / Teknis:

Perekrutan personel manajerial, eksekutif, dan pengawas (teknis dan profesional) secara luas dicoba melalui pemberitahuan dan wawancara di lembaga profesional, manajemen, dan teknis seperti IIT, IIM, Universitas, dan lembaga teknis dan manajemen lainnya. Ini telah populer disebut sebagai 'perekrutan kampus / penempatan kampus'.

Untuk staf teknis dan kategori serupa lainnya, pengusaha dapat mengadakan perjanjian dengan Institut Pelatihan Industri (ITI) Direktorat Jenderal Ketenagakerjaan dan Pelatihan, di mana ITI akan memasok peserta pelatihan sesuai dengan spesifikasi organisasi pemberi kerja. Lembaga profesional, teknis, dan pendidikan juga menjalankan layanan penempatan formal atau informal untuk mencocokkan mereka yang menawarkan layanan mereka dengan mereka yang mencari mereka.

Rekrutmen kampus relatif menjadi sumber yang kurang populer untuk perusahaan publik di India. Institut manajemen, institut teknologi, dan institusi utama lainnya menyediakan beberapa bahan terbaik untuk perekrutan di tingkat manajemen junior. Namun, terlihat bahwa banyak dari partisipasi sumber daya yang baik oleh organisasi-organisasi ini tidak tertarik pada sektor publik, di mana kebutuhannya lebih besar. Alasan untuk ini dinyatakan sebagai upah yang lebih baik yang ditawarkan oleh sektor swasta.

5. Perusahaan Penelusuran Eksekutif:

Perusahaan pencarian eksekutif, yang dikenal sebagai pemburu kepala, berspesialisasi dalam perekrutan tenaga teknis, profesional, dan manajerial. Perusahaan semacam itu memelihara bank data orang dengan kualifikasi, keterampilan, dan pengalaman mereka, dan merekomendasikan mereka ke organisasi klien mereka. Mereka bahkan mengiklankan pekerjaan untuk klien mereka untuk merekrut tipe personil yang tepat. Beberapa contoh firma pencarian eksekutif populer adalah AF Ferguson and Co., konsultan ABC, Godman International, dll.

6. Serikat sebagai Sumber:

Serikat pekerja cenderung memainkan peran penting sebagai sumber pasokan tenaga kerja (semacam praktik 'toko serikat' atau praktik 'toko tertutup'). Ini dicatat oleh Komisi Nasional Tenaga Kerja. Ketika serikat pekerja tidak secara aktif terlibat dalam menyediakan layanan informasi ketenagakerjaan kepada anggota mereka, mereka selalu tertarik untuk melihat bahwa anggota yang diberhentikan diberi preferensi untuk mempekerjakan kembali. Kontrak serikat kadang-kadang memuat referensi tentang tanggung jawab pemberi kerja untuk mempekerjakan kembali mantan karyawannya, biasanya dalam urutan senioritas.

7. Pelamar yang Tidak Diminta atau Walk-in:

Mereka yang mencari pekerjaan berlaku atas inisiatif mereka sendiri ketika mereka mengetahui kemungkinan lowongan tertentu dari sumber yang dapat dipercaya atau hanya melamar pekerjaan yang sesuai tanpa referensi iklan atau niat untuk merekrut pihak pemberi kerja.

8. Lainnya:

Ini termasuk merekrut pekerja harian yang diberi peringkat upah di gerbang pabrik.

Analisis terhadap sumber rekrutmen eksternal menunjukkan bahwa untuk posisi pengawas dan manajerial yang beriklan melalui surat kabar dan jurnal adalah metode yang paling populer untuk mengundang kandidat di Perusahaan India. Memberitahu lembaga teknis dan profesional adalah sumber umum berikutnya untuk personel pengawas dan manajerial; pertukaran pekerjaan dan pelamar yang tidak diminta bisa menjadi urutan berikutnya untuk preferensi pengawas.

Pelamar yang tidak diminta merupakan sumber yang paling disukai untuk perekrutan manajerial; dalam hal pekerja, memberitahukan bursa kerja adalah sumber yang paling banyak digunakan, diikuti oleh pelamar yang tidak diminta. Penggunaan e-recruitment saat ini sedang mengumpulkan momentum. Serikat pekerja memainkan peran penting dalam kasus rekrutmen pekerja.

Perekrutan biasanya menjadi tanggung jawab departemen SDM. Departemen harus diberitahu setiap kali ada lowongan baru atau pekerja mengundurkan diri atau karyawan pensiun atau dirasakan bahwa volume pekerjaan dalam organisasi membenarkan pekerjaan staf tambahan.

Prosedur rekrutmen akan memerlukan analisis pekerjaan, penyusunan spesifikasi / deskripsi pekerjaan, menyiapkan iklan pekerjaan, memberitahukan lowongan dengan bursa kerja atau menempatkannya di papan pengumuman organisasi jika terjadi promosi / transfer internal, dan mengisi lowongan.


Sumber Perekrutan di HRM - Sumber Perekrutan Internal dan Eksternal (Dengan Kelebihan dan Kekurangan)

(1) Sumber Internal

(2) Sumber Eksternal

Sumber internal :

Sumber untuk merekrut jumlah personel yang diperlukan dari dalam Organisasi untuk mengisi lowongan disebut sumber rekrutmen internal.

Berikut ini adalah sumber penting rekrutmen internal:

saya. Transfer- Ini melibatkan perpindahan karyawan dari satu pekerjaan ke pekerjaan lain, dari satu departemen ke departemen lain, atau dari satu shift ke shift lain di level yang sama.

ii. Promosi - Ini mengacu pada pengalihan seorang karyawan ke posisi yang lebih tinggi dengan membawa tanggung jawab, prestise, fasilitas dan gaji yang lebih tinggi.

aku aku aku. Lay Off - Untuk mengingat pekerja sementara untuk bekerja disebut Lay-off.

Kelebihan Sumber Internal Perekrutan:

(I) Karyawan termotivasi untuk meningkatkan kinerja mereka.

(II) Perekrutan internal menyederhanakan proses seleksi & penempatan.

(III) Tidak ada pemborosan waktu pada pelatihan dan pengembangan karyawan.

(IV) Mengisi pekerjaan secara internal lebih murah.

Kerugian Sumber Internal Perekrutan:

(I) Ruang lingkup untuk induksi bakat segar berkurang.

(II) Karyawan mungkin menjadi lesu.

(III) Semangat kompetisi di antara karyawan mungkin terhambat.

(IV) Seringnya pemindahan pegawai seringkali mengurangi produktivitas Organisasi.

(V) Perusahaan baru tidak dapat menggunakan sumber rekrutmen internal.

Sumber Eksternal:

Sumber merekrut jumlah personel yang diperlukan dari luar organisasi disebut sumber rekrutmen eksternal.

Berikut ini adalah berbagai sumber rekrutmen eksternal:

I. Perekrutan langsung - Di bawah Rekrutmen langsung, sebuah pemberitahuan ditempatkan pada papan pengumuman perusahaan yang menyebutkan perincian pekerjaan yang tersedia.

II Penelepon biasa- Banyak organisasi bisnis terkenal menyimpan basis data pelamar yang tidak diminta di kantor mereka. Daftar ini dapat digunakan untuk rekrutmen.

AKU AKU AKU. Iklan- Iklan di surat kabar umumnya digunakan ketika pilihan yang lebih luas diperlukan. Ini adalah sumber rekrutmen eksternal yang paling banyak digunakan.

IV. Pertukaran kerja - Pertukaran kerja dijalankan secara pribadi dan oleh pemerintah dianggap sebagai sumber perekrutan yang baik bagi pekerja tidak trampil dan terampil. Pertukaran kerja membantu untuk mencocokkan permintaan dan penawaran personel dengan melayani sebagai penghubung antara pencari kerja dan pemberi kerja.

V. Rekrutmen kampus - Rekrutmen yang dilakukan dari berbagai institusi pendidikan bereputasi dikenal sebagai rekrutmen kampus. Ini telah menjadi salah satu sumber utama sumber rekrutmen eksternal di zaman modern.

VI. Agen penempatan dan konsultan manajemen- Agen penempatan menyediakan layanan nasional dalam mencocokkan permintaan dan penawaran personel dengan membebankan biaya dari kedua belah pihak. Perusahaan konsultan manajemen merekrut tenaga teknis, profesional, dan manajerial untuk penempatan eksekutif tingkat menengah dan atas.

VII. Rekomendasi karyawan - Calon yang diperkenalkan oleh karyawan yang ada, atau teman dan kerabat mereka juga merupakan sumber rekrutmen eksternal yang baik.

VIII. Kontraktor tenaga kerja - Kontraktor tenaga kerja menyediakan jumlah pekerja tidak terampil yang diperlukan dalam waktu singkat yang tampaknya menjadi sumber perekrutan yang baik di beberapa keadaan.

IX. Beriklan di televisi - Praktik mengiklankan pos-pos kosong di televisi semakin penting sekarang.

X. Penerbitan web - Melalui internet, situs web tertentu yang dirancang dan didedikasikan khusus untuk tujuan menyediakan informasi tentang pencari kerja dan penyedia pekerjaan, berubah menjadi sumber perekrutan yang baik di zaman modern.

Kelebihan Sumber Eksternal:

saya. Personel yang berkualifikasi - Dengan menggunakan sumber rekrutmen eksternal, manajemen dapat menarik orang yang berkualifikasi dan terlatih untuk melamar pekerjaan yang kosong di organisasi.

ii. Pilihan yang lebih luas - Manajemen memiliki pilihan yang lebih luas ketika memilih kandidat menggunakan sumber rekrutmen eksternal.

aku aku aku. Bakat segar - Rekrutmen eksternal membawa darah baru dalam organisasi yaitu; karyawan baru dengan bakat dan teknologi terbaru.

iv. Semangat kompetitif - Jika perusahaan memanfaatkan sumber eksternal, staf yang ada harus bersaing dengan staf baru untuk kinerja dan hasil yang lebih baik.

Kerugian Sumber Eksternal Perekrutan:

saya. Ketidakpuasan di antara karyawan yang ada - Perekrutan dari luar dapat menyebabkan ketidakpuasan di antara karyawan yang ada. Mereka mungkin merasa bahwa peluang promosi mereka berkurang.

ii. Proses yang mahal - Banyak uang harus dihabiskan untuk iklan, tes, wawancara dll. Oleh karena itu ini adalah proses yang mahal.

aku aku aku. Proses yang panjang - Rekrutmen eksternal membutuhkan lebih banyak waktu untuk memberikan pemberitahuan, penerimaan aplikasi, melakukan tes, wawancara, dll.


Sumber Perekrutan - Berbagai Sumber Perekrutan

Organisasi yang sedang berjalan memiliki dua kategori sumber dari mana kandidat dapat tertarik untuk memilih - sumber internal dan sumber eksternal.

I. Sumber Internal :

Mengisi posisi organisasi melalui sumber internal adalah penataan ulang karyawan yang ada karena tidak ada peningkatan jumlah karyawan.

Ada dua cara di mana sumber-sumber internal dapat digunakan - transfer dan promosi:

saya. Transfer:

Pemindahan melibatkan pengalihan seorang karyawan dari satu departemen ke departemen lain, dari satu shift ke yang lain atau dari satu tempat ke tempat lain tanpa mengubah sifat pekerjaannya. Transfer adalah praktik yang sangat umum dalam administrasi pemerintahan. Dalam organisasi bisnis, transfer digunakan untuk merasionalisasi tenaga kerja (mentransfer surplus karyawan dari satu unit / departemen ke departemen lain yang kekurangan karyawan atau kurangnya karyawan yang kompeten) dan untuk mengembangkan multi-keterampilan melalui transfer lintas fungsional.

ii. Promosi:

Promosi melibatkan pergerakan karyawan ke atas dalam hierarki organisasi. Dalam hal ini, ada perubahan isi pekerjaan karyawan - lebih banyak wewenang dan tanggung jawab, lebih banyak kompensasi dan status yang lebih tinggi. Promosi sangat umum dalam organisasi. Ini mengarah pada motivasi kepada karyawan dan mereka bekerja keras untuk mendapatkan promosi. Ini melayani kebutuhan organisasi memiliki orang yang kompeten di posisi yang lebih tinggi 'yang berpengalaman dengan fungsi organisasi.

aku aku aku. Posting Pekerjaan:

Posting pekerjaan, juga dikenal sebagai iklan internal, melibatkan perekrutan orang-orang dari dalam baik dari organisasi yang bersangkutan atau organisasi milik kelompok bisnis. Posisi yang akan diisi diberitahukan melalui intranet organisasi. Intranet adalah situs web organisasi yang hanya dapat diakses oleh anggota organisasi yang bersangkutan.

Menanggapi pemberitahuan tersebut, karyawan meneruskan resume mereka untuk dipertimbangkan. Proses seleksi dalam posting pekerjaan mengikuti proses seleksi yang digunakan untuk memilih kandidat dari luar. Di banyak negara industri maju, metode ini mengisi posisi organisasi sangat umum.

Di India, beberapa organisasi telah mengadopsi praktik ini, misalnya, Hindustan Unilever, Larsen & Toubro, dll. Pada tingkat kelompok bisnis, kelompok Kumarmangalam Birla telah mengadopsi metode ini.

Keuntungan Sumber Internal Perekrutan:

Sumber rekrutmen internal memiliki banyak keunggulan yaitu:

Sebuah. Rekrutmen internal memotivasi karyawan karena mereka melihat peluang untuk pertumbuhan di masa depan dalam organisasi, khususnya dalam hal promosi.

b. Ini mengarah pada penyederhanaan proses rekrutmen dan seleksi karena kandidat tersedia secara internal dan proses seleksi yang disederhanakan dapat diikuti menggantikan proses yang ketat yang digunakan dalam memilih kandidat dari sumber eksternal.

c. Ini mengarah pada berkurangnya pelatihan dan upaya pengembangan karena banyak pelatihan dan upaya pengembangan tidak diperlukan, misalnya, orientasi, pemahaman budaya dan praktik organisasi, dll.

d. Ini mengarah pada rasionalisasi tenaga kerja dengan memindahkan karyawan dari unit-unit yang memiliki surplus karyawan ke unit-unit yang kekurangan karyawan.

Keterbatasan Sumber Internal Perekrutan :

Keterbatasan sumber rekrutmen internal adalah sebagai berikut:

Sebuah. Rekrutmen internal mengarah ke inbreeding mengisi posisi organisasi dengan karyawan memiliki pola pikir yang sama yang membawa inersia (semacam kekakuan dalam fungsi organisasi). Ini mengarah pada adopsi praktik organisasi yang sama meskipun ini mungkin salah. Sebenarnya, ini adalah batasan paling penting dalam perekrutan internal.

b. Ini mengarah ke promosi berbasis waktu yang hampir dipastikan. Itu membuat karyawan lesu.

c. Ini menghasilkan penghapusan semangat kompetitif di antara karyawan yang merupakan unsur yang sangat signifikan untuk kinerja yang lebih tinggi.

d. Transfer yang sering, yang diikuti oleh perekrutan internal, cenderung mengurangi produktivitas karyawan.

II Sumber Eksternal :

Sumber rekrutmen eksternal menambah jumlah karyawan, misalnya, menambah karyawan baru untuk mengisi posisi organisasi yang dibuat karena ekspansi atau hanya dapat mengubah sifat komposisi karyawan, misalnya, mengisi posisi organisasi yang dikosongkan oleh karyawan karena pensiun atau alasan lain. Rekrutmen eksternal membawa darah baru dalam suatu organisasi.

Ada berbagai sumber rekrutmen eksternal yaitu:

Sebuah. Iklan:

Iklan adalah metode yang paling umum digunakan untuk menghubungi calon kandidat untuk berbagai posisi dalam organisasi bisnis dan non-bisnis. Dalam organisasi bisnis, iklan digunakan untuk menarik personel manajerial dan teknis, baik yang berpengalaman maupun yang tidak berpengalaman.

Dalam hal rekrutmen personel, iklan adalah media untuk menginformasikan dan membujuk calon kandidat untuk menawarkan diri untuk pekerjaan. Iklan semacam itu dapat diletakkan di surat kabar (paling umum), jurnal profesional, majalah, televisi, radio, dan Internet.

Media apa untuk iklan yang harus digunakan tergantung pada audiens target? Misalnya, iklan di surat kabar memiliki cakupan yang lebih luas dan nilai retensi tinggi dibandingkan dengan media lain. Untuk rekrutmen yang sangat terspesialisasi, iklan dapat ditempatkan di jurnal profesional / bisnis.

Ada berbagai faktor yang mempengaruhi respons calon kandidat terhadap suatu iklan. Ini adalah identifikasi organisasi, kualitas dan cakupan informasi dalam iklan, dan kondisi pasar sumber daya manusia. Suatu organisasi mungkin tidak memiliki kendali atas faktor terakhir tetapi dapat menggunakan dua faktor lain untuk membuat iklannya lebih efektif.

Karena itu, mari kita bahas dua faktor ini:

saya. Identifikasi Organisasi:

Ada dua jenis iklan sejauh identifikasi organisasi periklanan terkait - iklan terbuka dan iklan buta. Dalam iklan terbuka, identitas organisasi dan fitur lainnya diungkapkan. Sebagian besar organisasi lebih suka bentuk iklan ini. Dalam iklan buta, identitas organisasi tidak diungkapkan.

Iklan buta semacam itu memiliki aspek positif tertentu, meskipun lebih banyak aspek negatifnya. Ketika suatu organisasi tidak ingin mempublikasikan fakta bahwa ia sedang berusaha mengisi posisi, atau berusaha merekrut seseorang untuk menggusur petahana saat ini dengan siapa ia tidak puas, iklan buta lebih tepat.

Kadang-kadang, iklan buta digunakan untuk menguji posisi ketersediaan personil meskipun posisi itu tidak tersedia, untuk membangun kumpulan aplikasi, atau hanya untuk mengidentifikasi karyawan saat ini yang cenderung terbang jauh.

ii. Kualitas dan Cakupan Informasi:

Iklan pekerjaan adalah media untuk menginformasikan dan membujuk calon kandidat serta menciptakan citra organisasi yang menguntungkan; itu adalah media penjualan konsep organisasi. Karena itu, harus dirancang dengan benar. Seharusnya tidak menjual terlalu banyak, juga tidak menjual konsep tetapi menjual sempurna.

Dalam menyusun iklan pekerjaan, konsep perhatian, minat, keinginan, dan tindakan (AIDA) harus diterapkan. Ini harus mencakup- (a) informasi tentang organisasi, (b) konten pekerjaan - tugas dan tanggung jawab utama, (c) deskripsi realistis tentang kondisi kerja, (d) lokasi pekerjaan - saat ini dan prospektif, (e) kompensasi termasuk tunjangan tambahan, (f) spesifikasi pekerjaan, (g) prospek pertumbuhan, dan (h) siapa yang melamar.

b. Perekrutan Internet:

Dengan perluasan konektivitas Internet, perekrutan Internet, juga dikenal sebagai perekrutan dunia maya atau perekrutan elektronik, telah menjadi sangat populer. Di AS, hampir 89 persen perusahaan saat ini menggunakan Internet untuk merekrut karyawan baru - semakin dengan menambahkan bagian rekrutmen ke situs web mereka. Selain itu, banyak perusahaan telah mengembangkan situs web khusus yang dirancang khusus untuk rekrutmen.

Di India juga, banyak perusahaan telah menggunakan perekrutan internet. Selain itu, ada banyak portal pekerjaan. Portal adalah situs web yang berfungsi sebagai titik masuk utama di Internet ke bidang minat tertentu. Dengan demikian, portal pekerjaan adalah situs web yang berisi informasi tentang pekerjaan. Di India, ada banyak portal pekerjaan. Portal pekerjaan yang menonjol adalah naukari.com, monster.com, timesjobs.com, shine.com, dll.

Perekrutan melalui internet melibatkan penempatan iklan lowongan melalui Internet yang memberikan semua rincian tentang lowongan dan metode untuk melamar lowongan tersebut. Secara umum, perusahaan yang memilih merekrut Internet mengundang aplikasi dari calon kandidat melalui Internet. Setelah membuat daftar kandidat yang memenuhi syarat, mereka diberitahu tentang tes seleksi dan / atau wawancara melalui Internet.

Sebagai alternatif untuk memasang iklan melalui Internet, Internet dapat digunakan untuk menjemput calon yang menawarkan diri untuk bekerja melalui itu. Ada berbagai situs web yang tersedia di Internet yang menyediakan resume calon kandidat.

Dengan demikian, Internet dapat digunakan sebagai lalu lintas dua arah — mengundang kandidat untuk mendaftar sesuai dengan iklan yang dipasang oleh perusahaan; atau perusahaan itu sendiri dapat merekrut kandidat yang menawarkan diri untuk pekerjaan.

Perekrutan melalui internet telah memperpendek kerangka waktu dari siklus perekrutan yang tidak hanya menghasilkan proses perekrutan yang lebih cepat tetapi mengurangi biaya per karyawan yang dipekerjakan. Penghematan biaya dalam hasil perekrutan internet karena penghematan karena berkomunikasi dengan kandidat.

Berkomunikasi dengan para kandidat melalui hard copy jauh lebih mahal. Dengan demikian, Internet telah membuat proses rekrutmen lebih mudah bagi organisasi maupun kandidat. Ini adalah alasan untuk meningkatkan popularitas perekrutan internet di seluruh dunia termasuk India.

c. Walk-ins:

Wawancara berjalan, yang dikenal sebagai walk-in, telah menjadi metode perekrutan yang cukup populer dalam beberapa tahun terakhir. Dalam metode walk-in, sebuah organisasi memasang iklan pendek di surat kabar, terutama di surat kabar lokal atau edisi lokal surat kabar nasional, media yang terakhir lebih populer.

Dalam iklan, rincian posisi yang harus diisi, kualifikasi yang dibutuhkan, tanggal dan tempat wawancara, dll. Diberikan. Calon yang memenuhi kriteria kelayakan disarankan untuk melaporkan tempat pada tanggal dan waktu yang ditentukan. Mereka juga disarankan untuk membawa bio-data, testimonial, foto, dll. Para kandidat diwawancarai, dan mereka yang terpilih ditawari pekerjaan pada tanggal yang sama.

Walk-in sangat umum untuk merekrut personel di call center dan perusahaan-perusahaan outsourcing proses bisnis (BPO) lainnya. Terlepas dari ini, banyak perusahaan dot com, perusahaan pembiayaan, dan perusahaan industri mengadopsi metode walk-in untuk merekrut personel untuk manajer tingkat junior atau personel yang relevan untuk teknologi informasi. Metode walk-in menjadi populer karena memperpendek kerangka waktu siklus perekrutan.

Dengan demikian, organisasi-organisasi yang membutuhkan karyawan segera memilih metode walk-in. Selanjutnya, metode walk-in jauh lebih ekonomis dibandingkan dengan metode rekrutmen biasa yang melibatkan iklan, menerima aplikasi hard copy dari kandidat, membuat daftar pendek aplikasi ini, dan terlibat dalam proses seleksi.

d. Rekrutmen Kampus:

Program perekrutan kampus (CRP) cukup populer terutama untuk merekrut MBA dan insinyur baru. Program-program semacam itu diselenggarakan oleh biro penempatan institusi pendidikan untuk menempatkan siswa mereka. Biro-biro ini membuat pengaturan untuk melakukan tes seleksi dan wawancara dengan mengunjungi perusahaan di kampus, menyediakan resume siswa, dan membuatnya tersedia untuk tes seleksi dan / atau wawancara. Bahkan, sebagian besar IIM dan IIT menempatkan siswa mereka melalui metode ini.

Prosedur yang biasa diadopsi oleh organisasi perekrutan adalah sebagai berikut:

saya. Kampus Daftar Pendek:

Sebagian besar perusahaan yang pergi untuk rekrutmen kampus cukup pemilih. Inilah alasan mengapa banyak lembaga dapat menempatkan siswa mereka dalam satu atau dua hari sementara siswa dari lembaga lain pergi mencari pekerjaan untuk waktu yang lama.

Sebagian besar perusahaan memilih lembaga akademik untuk dikunjungi berdasarkan standar pendidikan lembaga, proses pendidikan ruang kelas dalam hal pembelajaran pedagogi yang digunakan, kekuatan anggota fakultas, sistem pendukung seperti perpustakaan, referensi terkomputerisasi, dll., dan metode tes masuk dan pemilihan kandidat untuk masuk.

ii. Memilih Tim Perekrut:

Secara umum, masing-masing perusahaan memilih tim perekrut / terdiri dari manajer lini senior dari fungsi di mana rekrutmen akan diperlukan dan personel dari departemen SDM. Gagasan dasar untuk membentuk kombinasi semacam itu adalah bahwa orang-orang ini sangat paham tentang perusahaan dan pekerjaan yang harus dilakukan oleh karyawan yang direkrut di perusahaan.

aku aku aku. Mengunjungi Kampus dan Melakukan Kontak Awal:

Tim mengunjungi kampus terpilih pada hari yang nyaman bagi organisasi perekrutan dan institusi akademik. Tim rekrutmen melakukan kontak awal dengan siswa dalam suatu kelompok melalui biro penempatan institusi.

Dalam kontak awal, tim menyajikan informasi terperinci tentang perusahaannya, budaya kerja dan nilai-nilainya, dan isi pekerjaan tempat perekrutan dilakukan dan jalan promosi, dll. Misalnya, halaman sampul P&G dari brosurnya memuat sebuah blank chart menunjukkan jalur karier, dan siswa yang bersangkutan menandai jalur karier mereka sendiri.

Likewise, Nestle presents case examples of career development to demonstrate as to how new entrants grow in the company. Students are encouraged to ask questions about the relevant aspects of the company which may be of their interest.

iv. Conducting Tests/Interviews:

After the preliminary contact process is over, the team conducts tests/interviews of the students. In the case of IIMs, only interviews are sufficient. In many other cases, tests are also conducted. Based on the scores of interviews and/or tests, either the candidates are shortlisted for final interviews or they are offered positions straightway after finalizing the terms and conditions of employment.

Where the positions are offered at the campus itself, other formalities such as filling-up of application forms for record, signing of employment agreement, etc. are also completed there itself.

e. Job Fairs:

Job fairs are a kind of variant of campus recruitment in which there is a centralized recruitment programme of various institutions located in large cities and surrounding areas. In this case, either a participating institution or an independent institution acts as host. In such a programme, prospective students have to pay a nominal fee of Rs 200- 500 per head to meet out the expenses.

Companies intending to participate in such a programme are fixed in advance on the basis of the placement brochures of various institutions. Rest of the process of recruitment is carried out as discussed in campus recruitment process. This method has one advantage that a company is able to meet the students of a number of institutions in a single campus.

f. Consultancy Firms:

In many cases, the companies do not conduct the recruitment exercise themselves. Instead, they take the help of consulting firms. In India, there are many consultancy firms which offer this service, the prominent ones are ABC Consultants, Human Resource Consultants, Head Hunters, Watson Wyatt, Quest Consultants, Oman Consultants, etc. with ABC Consultants being the most prominent.

These consulting firms offer recruitment services to their clients. Dining the last one decade, there has been mushrooming growth of human resource search firms because of increased competition for personnel at all managerial levels. These search firms provide recruitment services for middle and higher levels of management by charging fees in terms of percentage of the annual basic salary for the job varying between 15-20.

In choosing a recruitment consultant, an organization should consider the following points:

saya. Verify the reputation of the consultant from other users.

ii. Attempt should be made to look at the advertisements of different consulting firms with a view to understanding the quality of consultancy service and obtaining an idea of the type and level of jobs with which it relates.

aku aku aku. Care should be taken to assess the special expertise of the consultant.

iv. Discuss with the consultant to understand as to how it is qualified to deal with a particular assignment.

v. Although other considerations are more crucial, compare fees.

vi. While engaging a consultant, care should be taken to agreed terms of reference.

vii. Attempt should be made to brief him vis-a-vis the organization, where the job fits in, why the recruitment is to be made, and special requirements, if any.

viii. As much as possible, help him in defining the job and the personnel specification embracing special demands for success; it would be more useful if he has a comprehensive understanding of what is required and what type of person is likely to fit in the organizational culture.

ix. Assess adequately the purpose of recruitment programme and draft the text of advertisement.

x. Examine the basis upon which fees and expenses are to be charged by him.

xi. Care should be taken that arrangements are made to deal directly with him.

Ronen Puri, Director of Executive Access India Pvt. Limited, a part of Access Asia consulting firm based at Hong Kong, has observed that search firms must be made accountable for the performance of the personnel they select. According to him, “Search firms so far have been charging fees for placing a candidate.

There has been no accountability on the most important factor — the performance of the candidate on board. Whether the candidate performed or not, the search firms got paid. Therefore, we have introduced a new concept for the payment of the fees. When the company places someone, it takes a percentage of the fee upfront. The rest is made a variable component which is paid if the candidate is able to meet certain pre-determined targets set for him.”

g. Personal Contacts:

Personal contact method is a good source of recruiting managers, particularly at higher levels. The target candidates for personal contacts may be persons who have opted voluntary retirement scheme (VRS), retired managers from other companies, retired government officials or defence personnel, etc.

Retired professors from universities and management/technical institutes can also be recruited through personal contacts. These are the personnel who may not like to apply for positions which suit them but may be willing to work on those positions. Therefore, personal contacts, if maintained effectively, can be a good source of recruiting good personnel from the above category.

h. Poaching and Raiding:

Poaching and raiding method of recruiting is like personal contact method but its nature is quite different. Poaching and raiding method involves personal contact but the process is slightly cumbersome. The literal meaning of poaching is to intrude on another's preserves in order to take an undue advantage and raiding means an unauthorized invasion.

In poaching and raiding, the company following this practice contacts competitors' employees secretly or otherwise and woos them to join its force. For example, at the global level, Microsoft, the most renowned IT Company of the world, relies on this method to a very great extent. Microsoft maintains full-time staff of 200 recruiting experts.

This is Microsoft's 'strike team' whose sole job is to ferret out the industry's most talented people, then build and maintain a relationship with them through telephone calls at discrete intervals, invitations for dinners, etc. Members of strike team employ every means to keep the lines of communication open with the potential candidates. Even Bill Gates, CEO of Microsoft, hosts occasional dinners for these potentials.

Through this way, Microsoft has been able to hire many IT talents. In India, Reliance Industries adopts this approach to some extent. It's CEO and directors maintain a large networks of friends and associates around the world to tip them off when they find attractive talent. The company woos them through persuasion to join its force. However, Reliance does not concentrate only on its competitors' employees but looks beyond those.

Poaching and raiding method is adopted in indirect method too. In indirect method, a company engages a hiring consultant, known as on-demand recruiting services (ODRS) vendor. Such a vendor is a specialist in poaching and raiding and keeps records of key employees of different industry sectors.

When any assignment is given to the vendor, it searches prospective candidates from the industry concerned. Often a vendor approaches the key employees of the nearest competitor, followed by others. Unlike the regular HR consultants who charge fees after recruiting and selecting employees, ODRS vendors charge fees on the basis of time spent on poaching and raiding.

In the age of this war for talent, poaching and raiding method of recruiting is very important, particularly for those organizations which want to be at the top of the ladder based on the strengths of their human resources though ethical issue in poaching and raiding is raised from some quarters albeit without much force.

All these methods are relevant for recruiting managers or would-be managers at different levels of the organization and technical personnel.

For recruiting personnel at the operative levels, the sources are as follows:

I. Public Employment Exchanges:

Public employment exchanges, or simply known as employment exchanges, have been set by government all over the country in deference to the provisions of the Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act of 1959. The Act requires that all industrial undertakings must notify their vacancies up to supervisory levels to employment exchange concerned before these vacancies are filled-up.

The job seekers get themselves registered with the employment exchanges. The major role of the employment exchanges is to find a match between jobs notified by various industrial undertakings and the job seekers, and to inform the job seekers accordingly.

Thus, an employment exchange acts as a link between employers and job seekers. The various positions for which the exchanges provide link include blue-collars, technicians at lower levels, and white-collars. However, the role of employment exchanges in India is not as effective as was envisaged at the time of their establishment.

II Labour Unions:

In many organizations, labour unions are used as a source of recruitment of personnel at the unskilled or semi-skilled level. Sometimes, these labour unions are asked to make recommendations for employment of people as a matter of goodwill and cooperation.

The union leaders maintain contacts with outside personnel and, in many cases, they keep the records of the people who make contacts with them with a view to supply the records whenever the organization looks for that. In this case too, the recruitment is limited to employees at lower levels.

AKU AKU AKU. Gate Hiring:

The concept of gate hiring is to select people who approach on their own for employment in the organization. This happens mostly in the case of unskilled and semi-skilled workers. Gate hiring is quite useful and convenient method at the initial stage of the organization when large number of such people may be required by the organization.

It can be made effective by prompt disposal of applications by providing information about the organization's policy and procedures regarding such hiring and providing facilities to such gate callers.

IV. Labour Contractors:

Labour contractors supply labourers, particularly the unskilled ones, by charging a nominal fee per worker. These labourers may be appointed for certain specified period as casual workers in an organization. Normally, construction companies depend on labour contractors to a very great extent for the supply of construction workers.

V. Employee Referrals:

Sometimes, employees also recommend the names of some persons from their family members, friends, and other acquaintances from whom the organization can select the candidates. The idea behind using employee recommendations as a source of potential candidates is that the present employees may have specific knowledge of such candidates.

If the present employees are satisfied with their jobs, they communicate these feelings to many persons. Though this source may be used to fill managerial/technical position as well as operatives, this source is more common for recruiting operatives.

Advantages of External Sources of Recruitment :

External sources of recruitment have many advantages and limitations.

Advantages of internal sources of recruitment are as follows:

saya. Through external sources of recruitment, more qualified and competent people may be attracted for selection.

ii. External recruitment leads to selection of suitable competent personnel as selection alternatives available are quite wide.

aku aku aku. External recruitment leads to infusion of fresh bloods who may think in innovative ways. This may result in development of newer ways of working. In fact, many organizations which experience downward turn in business because of management practices, resort to bring new talents at higher levels from external sources.

iv. External recruitment leads to develop competitive spirit among employees and they develop relevant competence for higher positions.

Limitations of External Sources of Recruitment :

Limitations of external sources of recruitment are as follows:

saya. External recruitment leads to develop dissatisfaction among employees as they develop a feeling that higher positions are almost reserved for outsiders.

ii. It is a lengthy process and involves much higher cost than internal recruitment.

aku aku aku. Sometimes, external recruitment leads to disruption of organizational practices because of mismatch between organizational values and values of new recruits.

Combining Internal and External Sources :

Internal and external sources do not exist in 'either or' situation, rather, these exist in terms of a continuum. Every organization has to resort to both sources; every organization has to fill-up its vacancies through promotion; in the same way, every organization has to take people from outside.

Therefore, it is a question of combining both sources and determining the proportion of internals and externals at various hierarchical levels of the organization. Normally, at the lower levels of managerial hierarchy, called as entry levels, there is high proportion of externals.

As the chain of hierarchy goes up, the proportion of internals increases at the cost of externals. However, the pre-requisite of this pattern of recruitment is the highly developed training and development system in the organization.

In order to combine internal and external sources of recruitment, following factors should be taken into account:

I. The policy of taking candidates from internal and external sources affects the attitudes and actions of people in the organization. Filling-up of positions through internal promotions has a favourable reaction among people. They are likely to associate themselves with the organization as they see their future secured in the organization through promotion. However, this may result in complacency. Therefore, the organization must develop systems to ensure that complacency does not develop as a result of guaranteed promotion.

II The level of socialization required and time taken in this process determines the extent of internal and external sources. If the socialization process in the organization takes substantial time, it is preferable to use internal source.

Personnel selected from outside take time to socialize themselves with the organization. For certain jobs and people, it may take considerably longer time. For example, marketing executive of a consumer product company takes lesser time in socializing with another consumer product company but takes more time with a capital goods company. Same is the case with production personnel.

Finance personnel may take almost same time in spite of differences or similarities in the product lines of the organizations. Apart from product lines, there is need for socialization with the organization's culture, work ethics, and values. If the organization differs on these counts from other organizations from where the candidates come in, they will take more time in socialization.

AKU AKU AKU. The need for originality and new ideas also affects the recruitment from internal and external sources. The organizations which feel the problems of inbreeding and stagnation of ideas may opt for external sources. Similarly, the organizations which grow through diversification, particularly unrelated one, have to place more emphasis on external sources as existing personnel may not be fully equipped to handle new businesses.


Sources of Recruitment – Different Sources of Recruitment

Broadly, sources of recruitment are internal and external. With the expansion of information technology, many organizations adopt e-recruitment. Recruitment from all the sources has its advantages and disadvantages.

Source # 1. Internal Recruitment :

Recruiting individuals to fill particular posts within a business can be done internally by declaring the vacancy on the notice board. Internal recruitment is the process of filling the vacancy from within its existing workforce. Internal recruitment refers to internal mobility of employees.

Internal mobility of personnel at higher position in organizational hierarchy is referred to as succession planning. Providing adequate internal career development opportunities is a key factor in employee motivation and job satisfaction. Promoting internal recruitment is also critical for any organization since it helps in retaining top talent and ensures future business success.

Internal mobility provides an opportunity for personal development and thus employees are encouraged to take personal responsibility for their own professional growth and competence development. Internal mobility has the components like time in one position, open communication, transfer period, internal transfer within a country, and internal transfer between countries.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Internal Recruitment :

The advantages of internal recruitment are manifold, some of which are as follows:

(a) A firm can save substantial recruitment cost in this recruitment. Individuals with knowledge of the firm will need shorter periods of training and time for 'fitting in'. The process of induction is not required at all. Only brief about the higher position must be given.

(b) Disruption in the organization will be minimal as the promoted or the transferred individual is used to work with others in the organization.

(c) Internal promotion acts as an incentive to all staff to work harder within the organization.

(d) From the point of view of the firm, the strengths and weaknesses of an employee stand assessed. There is always a risk attached to employing an outsider who may only be a success 'on paper' without actually having a good track record.

The disadvantages of internal recruitment are listed below:

(a) The firm will have to replace the person who has been promoted. In other words, the promotion can create a ripple effect in the organization.

(b) An insider may be less likely to make the essential criticisms required to get the firm working more effectively.

(c) Promotion of one person in a company may upset someone else. This happens when one competent person expects promotion but does not get that due to shortage of vacancies.

Source # 2. External Recruitment :

External recruitment is the process of hiring talent from outside the organization. External recruitment makes it possible to draw upon a wider range of talents from the vast markets. This source provides the opportunity to bring in new experience and ideas into the business.

Disadvantages are that it is more costly and the company may end up with someone who proves to be less effective and an underperformer in practice than they did on paper and in the interview situation. This happens due to 'select error' during the selection process.

Advantages and Disadvantages of External Recruitment :

Like internal recruitment, external recruitment has its advantages and disadvantages as well.

I . Electronic Recruitment :

With the intensification and popularization of information technology, electronic recruitment (e-recruitment) has become a common and popular practice of recruitment. The extensive growth of information technology has opened up panorama for organizations trying to acquire talents through an entirely different gateway.

There are many ways to use the Internet, and increasingly, organizations are inclining and refining their use of this medium. In fact, e-recruitment is an evolving face of recruitment and possibly may replace the advertising in newspaper.

The Internet penetration in India is increasing and has tremendous potential. According to a study by NASSCOM, jobs are among the top reasons why new users will use the internet, besides e-mail. There are more than 18 million resumes floating online across the world.

The two kinds of e-recruitment that organizations generally using are as follows:

(a) Job Portals:

It means posting jobs along with the job description and the job specification on the job portal which also searches for the suitable resumes posted on the site corresponding to the needs in the organization.

(b) Creating a Complete Online Recruitment Section:

It refers to the creation of complete online recruitment/application section on the companies' own website. The company adds an application system to its website. Some job seekers can submit their resumes into the database of the organization for suitable positions. The company considers such application as and when the need arises.

Resume Scanners:

Job portals provide the 'resume scanner' tool which is a major benefit of online application and recruitment. These scanners enable the organizations to screen and filter the resumes through defined criteria and requirements (ie, skills, qualifications, requisite experience, and pay information) of the job.

The job sites provide recruiters with a round-the-clock access to the database of resumes. Added to this, the jobs can be posted on the site almost immediately and this process is also cheaper than advertising in the mass media, for example, employment newspapers.

At times, companies can get valuable references through the 'passers-by' applicants. Online recruitment helps the organizations to computerize the recruitment process and save their time and costs on recruitments.

Monster(dot)com (www(dot)monster(dot)com), HotJobs(dot)com (www(dot)hotjobs(dot)com), and Career-Builder(dot)com ( www(dot)careerbuilder(dot)co(dot)in ) are some well-known job sites which attract a vast array of applicants, who submit standardized resumes that can be electronically searched using key terms. Recruiters can search for suitable candidates and job seekers can search organizations in the same way.

II . Other Common Sources of Recruitment :

The source of human resource or manpower depends on the level at which employees are being recruited. For lower levels, internal recruitment is done. However, for recruitment at upper level, companies generally take on external recruitment when they search talents from open market with requisite qualifications, experiences, and proven track records in the present companies.

For recruitment, the most common sources of human resource are notice board, employment exchange, state and union public service commissions, educational institutions, recommendations of present employees, labour unions, etc.

saya. Notice Board:

A company's notice board is used for putting up notice boards showing the appraisals of the employees such that they can tell family members, friends, and other known persons about the position that has fallen vacant. The applications are received, scrutinized, and short-listed, and eligible candidates are called for selection tests. In this case, the recruitment is minimal.

ii. Internal Job Market:

Internal Job Market (IJM) is another tool to search potential candidates within the same family for various lucrative positions. It is an electronic tool extensively used by multinational companies. The IJM facilitates worldwide search for them. The principal purpose of IJM is helping internal mobility system and the process career development of the employees.

aku aku aku. Employee Referral:

Some companies ask its present employees to recommend prospective candidates. This is widely practiced in information technology companies such as Yahoo, Google, Microsoft, and other companies. The recommended candidate passes through the screening process. On selection, the employee who recommended gets some honorarium as he/she saves the recruitment cost.

iv. Employment Exchange:

Employment exchanges established in various cities as per public policy are an important source of recruitment.

v. Service Commissions:

Union Public Service Commission (UPSC), State PSC, College Service Commission (CSC), etc. especially for professional and managerial positions.

vi. Placement Agencies:

Some recruitment agencies and associations establish and maintain database of job-seekers. When a company approaches such an agency, it refers to the database, fetches the candidates with requisite backgrounds, and provides the list to the company who carries out the selection process. In some cases, companies desire the agency to recruit on their behalf. This is also a good source for recruitment as the process is smooth and lead time of recruitment is minimum.

vii. Educational Institutions:

The placement cell of business schools and engineering colleges/ institutions approaches organizations and invites them for campus recruitment. Some companies make special efforts to establish and maintain constructive relationships with management and engineering colleges, universities, and institutes to get the suitable qualified human resource.

viii. Labour Unions:

Unions look after the welfare of the employees. As a part of the welfare measure, many organizations provide employment to the next-of-kin of the deceased person on compassionate ground in consultation with the labour unions after due verification about the movable and immovable assets.

ix. Nepotism:

In family-owned organizations, there may not be definite recruitment policy. They would rather recruit their family members having the capacity to perform the tasks.

x. Leasing:

To meet short-term requirement, people can be taken 'on lien' or 'lease' basis for a period of one, two, or three years. The organization gets experienced people and is not required to bear any obligation. People working in the government sector are seen to frequently proceed to some government organization on lien.

The main advantage is that if the person finds the new organization not very promising for some considerations, he/she may return back to the parent organization within the lean period.

III . Attracting the Human Resource :

Getting more applicants makes it possible to get good candidates. Multi-stage selection processes, in each stage, help in screening of candidates. Only few 'extremely good, suitable, and fit' candidates reach the interview stage. Finally, the board selects the best of the lot and prepares the panel of selected candidates.

Organizations must initiate proactive approach in order to get more number of applicants. You must remember that readers of your advertisement are your prospective employees. Marketing people have a simple and effective method called AIDA (ie, attention, interest, desire and action) for creating good advertisements.

AIDA emphasizes on the following:

A — Attract the reader's 'attention'

I — Generate 'interest' in the vacancy

D — Create 'desire' for the job

A — Stimulate the reader to take 'action'

In order to attract attention of the human resource, an organization should briefly mention in the advertisement about the evolution of the company, group of dependable suppliers, its renowned customers, value and belief, image, modern technology in use, awards it has bagged, strategy of development, etc. In order to attract interest, it should communicate quickly and clearly the essential points.

Interest in the vacancy may be generated mentioning the career growth and progression, career anchors, succession planning, etc. You must also communicate a very clear and realistic picture of the organization to ensure that the organization's values match those of any potential candidate. Moreover, this would reduce probability of attrition.

The desire of prospective candidates or talents may be created mentioning few challenging projects which would be required to manage chance of visiting abroad, scope of attending management development programmes in reputed institutes, opportunity for self-development, and so forth.

Government departments, while advertising, specify the job requirements and request the candidates to send the duly-filled form via post with a demand draft or any other mode of remittance. Many prospective candidates feel lethargic going through this process.

On the contrary, the prescribed application format may be uploaded to the website, making the process of filling the form easy. Further, the scope of remitting the requisite amount online may also be provided using debit card or credit card. Providing the provision of uploading the photograph would accelerate them to apply smoothly. This will simulate the reader to take 'action', that is, applying.


Sources of Recruitment – With Merits and Demerits

I . Internal sources

II . External sources

I. Internal Sources:

saya. Promosi

ii. Transfers, and

aku aku aku. Response of employees to notified vacancy and

iv. Re-employment of ex-employees- It is one of the internal sources of recruitment in which employees can be invited and appointed to fill vacancies in the concern. There are situations when ex-employees provide unsolicited applications also.

Merits of Internal Sources of Recruitment :

1. The internal sources of recruitment have the advantage of absorbing people already acquainted with the company culture.

2. Our employees are tried and tested people and we can depend on them.

3. It is a useful signal to employees and assures them that their services are recognized and this helps in maintaining their motivation and morale.

4. It reduces labour turnover as it gives employees a sense of job security and opportunity for advancement.

5. Our employees are fully acquainted with the organization. Hence, job training can be reduced.

6. Internal sources of recruitment are less costly than the other sources of recruitment.

7. It is a return of investment in human capital.

Demerits of Internal Sources of Recruitment :

1. It limits the choice to a few employees only.

2. The likes and dislikes of the superiors play an important role in the selection of an employee.

3. It creates frustration among those employees who are not selected.

4. Creates inbreeding of ideas.

II . External Sources :

saya. Advertising in newspapers, trade journals and magazines – The advantage of advertisement is that it covers a wide area of market and scattered applicants can get information from advertisement.

ii. Employment exchanges – There are certain employment exchange which are run by Government. Most of the government undertakings and concern employ people through such exchanges. Now-a-days recruitment in government agencies has become compulsory through employment exchange.

aku aku aku. Campus recruitment – There are certain professional Institutions which serve as an external source for recruitment fresh graduates from these institutes. This kind of recruitment done through such educational institutions is called as Campus Recruitment. They have special recruitment cells which help in providing to fresh candidates.

iv. Unsolicited applicants

v. Labour contractors – These are the specialist people who supply manpower to the Factory or Manufacturing plants. Through these contractors, workers are appointed on contract basis, ie for a particular time period. Under conditions when these contractors leave the organization, such people who are appointed have to also leave the concern.

vi. Employee referrals

vii. Private Employment agencies/Consultants – There are certain professional organizations which look towards recruitment and employment of people, ie these private agencies run by private individuals supply required manpower to needy concerns.

viii. Professional Associations

ix. Data Banks

x. Casual Applicants

xi. Similar Organizations/Competitors

xii. Trade Unions

xiii. Walk-in

xiv. Consult in

xv. Head Hunting

xvi. Body Shopping

xvii. Merger dan akuisisi

xviii. Tele recruitment

xix. Pengalihdayaan

Merits of External Sources of Recruitment :

1. Fresh talent and skill comes into the organization.

2. New employees may try to change old habits.

3. New employees may be selected at the terms and conditions of the organization.

4. Highly qualified and experienced employees may help the organization to come up with better performance.

5. Since persons are recruited from a large market, the best selection can be made.

6. External sources provide the requisite type of personnel for an organization, having the required skill and standard.

7. External sources of recruitment are economical because potential employees do not need extra training for their skills.

Demerits of External Sources of Recruitment :

1. External sources of recruitment reduce the morale of employees.

2. External sources of recruitment deny career advancement for employees.

3. Proper evaluation of outside candidates may not be possible because of time availability, this may result in faulty selection of employees.

4. Outsiders are not fully acquainted with the policies and procedures of the organization. Therefore, may need expensive training.

5. According to Yoder, 'the hiring process is of one or many 'go-no-go' gauges. Candidates are screened by the employer and the short-listed applicants go on to the next hurdle, while unqualified ones are eliminated.'


Sources of Recruitment – What are the Sources of Recruitment

Whether you are replacing an employee who is leaving, or you need to hire new staff as the business is growing, you need to use the most efficient method to find the right people. There are many ways of conducting a search —each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Your search could range from in-house recruitment to reviewing unsolicited resumes. You need to assess each option and then choose the one or more ways that work best for you.

Effective recruiting requires that you know where and how to obtain qualified applicants.

It is difficult to generalise about the best source for each business, but a description of the major sources follows:

Source # 1. In-House:

The most qualified person may already be working for you. Some of the benefits of hiring from within include a boost in employee morale, efficient succession planning as you are identifying those ready for a new challenge, and less time spent on orientation and training. Other benefits include fewer turnovers, as employees can see that they can have a career with your company, and it is cheaper as there are no advertising costs.

However, there are some disadvantages to hiring in-house. You may have a limited number of applicants, you will reduce your chances of hiring from diverse communities, and you may miss the new energy and ideas that come from hiring outside your company. Internal hiring may also cause a ripple effect of promotions and vacancies in your firm. As one person moves up a new vacancy is created, a process which can continue all the way down to an entry level job.

Source # 2. Word of Mouth:

Putting the word on the street that you are looking for people can be an effective and efficient way of finding employees. By tapping into your networks you may readily find the experienced professional that you need for that new contract with very limited cash expense.

Outplacement companies maintain job boards free of charge and can be a good source of skilled workers. Do not overlook referrals from employees. They have a vested interest in seeing a friend or relative hired and perform well. Evaluate all word of mouth referrals the same way as you would other applicants. Do not feel that you have to hire them because they were recommended to you.

Source # 3. Internet Job Sites:

This is fast becoming the preferred way for both employers and employees to find each other, especially if you are looking for staff who are younger or comfortable with information technology. To reach a small select group of candidates, you can post the job on the career section of your own web page or to websites. To reach a larger audience you can post your job on general websites such as those run by the newspapers. They may charge you for doing so.

Source # 4. Newspaper / Trade Journal Ads:

Most jobs are filled by the methods listed above. There may be times when you need to place and ad in a newspaper or trade journal. You can reach the largest pool of applicants locally, nationally or even internationally. The disadvantages to this method include price—it can be very expensive to place a decent sized ad that potential applicants will see as they scan the career sections. This method is also time-consuming, as you need to write the ad and let it run for some time. You also need to plan how to handle the volume of applications. One company placed a small ad for a junior biologist in their regional area.

Source # 5. Colleges and Universities:

This is a very effective way of filling junior positions with people whom you know are already qualified for working in the industry. Campus recruitment is also helpful if you need staff with specialised skills.

Source # 6. Unsolicited Applicants:

Small businesses receive many unsolicited applications from qualified and unqualified individuals. The former should be kept on file for future reference. Good business practice suggests that all applicants be treated courteously whether or not they are offered jobs.

Source # 7. Schools:

High schools, trade schools, vocational schools, colleges and universities are sources for certain types of employees, especially if prior work experience is not a major factor in the job specification. Schools also are excellent sources for part-time employees.

Source # 8. Private Employment Agencies:

These firms provide a service for employers and applicants by matching people to jobs in exchange for a fee. Some fees are paid by the applicants, and there is no cost to the employer; for highly qualified applicants in short supply, the employer sometimes pays the fee.

Source # 9. Employee Referrals:

References by current employees may provide excellent prospects for the business. Evidence suggests that current employees hesitate to recommend applicants with below average ability. Word of mouth is one of the most commonly used recruiting sources in the small business community.

Source # 10. “Help Wanted” Advertising:

Letting people know that the business is hiring is a key element in gaining access to the pool of potential employees. At its simplest, this type of advertising may take the form of a Help Wanted sign in the window. More sophisticated methods involve using local media, primarily print sources such as daily and weekly newspapers.

The classified pages of newspapers are frequently consulted by active job seekers, including currently employed individuals who may be tempted by a more attractive position. Other advertising media include radio and television. These tend to have a wider appeal than the newspaper; however, the price of an advertisement is correspondingly higher.

Speciality media publications, such as trade association magazines and newsletters, may also produce quality job applicants. There are efforts in some parts of the country to offer small business employers access to cable television community bulletin boards. Another high-tech opportunity is to list positions on computer network bulletin boards.

Prices for help wanted advertising vary and the small business owner approaches them with caution. A well-placed, high quality advertisement will attract good people, whereas, an expensive advertisement in the wrong medium may get no results. Some experimentation is worthwhile to most small businesses. Another suggestion is to ask other small business people in the area about their success with help wanted advertising. Learn from others' successes and mistakes.

Source # 11. Other Methods:

There are a few other ways of finding the right employees. These include people you meet at environmental conferences, seminars and trade shows. You can attract them by either setting up your own recruitment booth or through informal meetings. Private employment agencies are also a source, although they do charge a fee. Finally, you may find staff if someone just happens to be making the rounds of potential employers by visiting your office or by sending you an unsolicited resume. Whatever your source of employees, you should screen and select those for interviews using the same rigorous methods.


 

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