Komunikasi Pemasaran: Makna, Tujuan, Peran, Proses dan Strategi

Pada artikel ini kita akan membahas tentang komunikasi pemasaran. Komunikasi pemasaran memiliki peran penting dalam membangun merek di pasar. Iklan media massa, penjualan pribadi, hubungan masyarakat, publikasi dan promosi penjualan - adalah berbagai alat komunikasi yang biasanya digunakan pemasar untuk mengatasi masalah komunikasi yang dihadapi merek di pasar dan sebagai bagian dari promosi produk.

Komunikasi pemasaran yang terjadi melalui alat promosi menyediakan informasi dan dasar persuasi bagi konsumen sasaran. Jadi, ini berfungsi sebagai 'stimulus' yang dapat memicu proses pengambilan keputusan dan juga membantu dalam pengambilan keputusan yang tepat. Penting untuk dicatat di sini bahwa komunikasi pemasaran yang terjadi melalui penggunaan alat promosi hanyalah salah satu rangsangan yang mempengaruhi pengambilan keputusan tentang produk.

Komunikasi Pemasaran Periklanan memiliki fitur unik tertentu, yang membedakannya dari bentuk komunikasi pemasaran lainnya seperti penjualan pribadi, promosi penjualan (SP) publisitas, dan hubungan masyarakat (PR).

Pelajari tentang: - 1. Makna Komunikasi Pemasaran 2. Tujuan Komunikasi Pemasaran 3. Elemen 4. Proses 5. Peran 6. Pendekatan 7. Strategi 8. Perencanaan dan Strategi Antar-Hubungan 9. Peran 10. Relevansi 11. Model Baru 12 Tujuan.


Komunikasi Pemasaran: Makna, Proses, Elemen, Strategi, Pendekatan, Strategi, Peran, Relevansi, Model dan Tujuan Baru

Konten:

  1. Arti Komunikasi Pemasaran
  2. Tujuan Komunikasi Pemasaran
  3. Elemen Komunikasi Pemasaran
  4. Proses Komunikasi Pemasaran
  5. Peran Komunikasi Pemasaran dalam Membangun Merek
  6. Pendekatan Komunikasi Pemasaran
  7. Strategi Komunikasi Pemasaran
  8. Perencanaan dan Strategi Hubungan Antar
  9. Peran Komunikasi dalam Penciptaan Nilai dan Pengiriman
  10. Relevansi 'Diamond' Nasional dan Model 7S Mckinsey dalam Teori Komunikasi
  11. Model Baru 'Komunikasi dan Strategi'
  12. Tujuan Komunikasi Pemasaran

Komunikasi Pemasaran - Makna

Sementara 'perencanaan strategi komunikasi' kata komunikasi memegang pusat yang menghubungkan perencanaan dan strategi. Komunikasi telah memungkinkan homo-sapiens untuk maju baik dengan mentransmisikan pengetahuan dan menjadi saluran untuk penambahan pengetahuan ini. Ini mencakup potensi itu sendiri untuk menghasilkan perubahan serta pengembangan perilaku dan sistem respons.

Apa yang berlaku bagi umat manusia berlaku untuk organisasi dan strategi pemasaran. Namun, studi kami tentang 'komunikasi' seringkali dibatasi oleh definisi yang kami berikan. Komunikasi pemasaran, seperti yang kami definisikan, tetap selalu menjadi bagian dari komunikasi perusahaan, itu bukan hasil dari perencanaan formal tetapi merupakan sesuatu yang dicapai secara informal.

Keberhasilan kompetitif jika dicapai karena komunikasi keseluruhan ini, mungkin akibat kecelakaan daripada desain. Upaya di sini adalah untuk memberikan struktur formal untuk komunikasi perusahaan yang menyeluruh atau terpadu ini.

Peran komunikasi dalam pemasaran, dalam apa yang sering disebut sebagai bauran komunikasi perusahaan. Apa pun objek kegiatan pemasaran - apakah produk baru, merek atau rangkaian produk, atau seluruh aktivitas perusahaan - akan ada ruang lingkup untuk mengembangkan dan menerapkan tujuan komunikasi dalam melayani tugas pemasaran.

Pada dasarnya, komunikasi pemasaran melibatkan peningkatan atau pencapaian kesadaran, pemahaman yang lebih baik, kepercayaan dan makna bersama, dan asosiasi positif, sikap dan kecenderungan yang mendukung produk, layanan atau organisasi yang sedang dipasarkan.

Sementara semua fungsi bisnis bergantung pada beberapa koordinasi dan hubungan dengan yang lain, pemasaran mungkin lebih berpusat pada orang daripada banyak orang, dan tentu saja yang paling terlibat dengan kelompok pemangku kepentingan utama seperti pelanggan, badan perdagangan, komentator media dan sejenisnya.

Jelas, hubungan dengan kelompok-kelompok pemangku kepentingan ini membutuhkan fungsi komunikasi yang terencana dan dilaksanakan dengan hati-hati. Lebih jauh lagi, karena efektivitas pemasaran tergantung setidaknya sebagian pada fungsi-fungsi non-pemasaran dalam suatu perusahaan, maka komunikasi pemasaran dapat dipengaruhi oleh setiap transaksi perusahaan dengan dunia luar.


Komunikasi Pemasaran - Tujuan

Sebelum kita mencoba memahami komunikasi pemasaran, penting untuk memulai dengan tujuan yang ingin dicapai.

Kita tahu bahwa tujuan dari upaya pemasaran adalah untuk meningkatkan nilai yang disampaikan kepada pelanggan. Ini harus dilakukan dengan biaya minimum kepada pelanggan.

Persamaan berikut merangkumnya:

Nilai yang Dikirim Pelanggan = Total Nilai Pelanggan - Total Biaya Pelanggan

Tujuan dari komunikasi pemasaran dapat tidak berbeda dari tujuan pemasaran yaitu, untuk memaksimalkan nilai yang disampaikan pelanggan. Ini dapat ditingkatkan dengan meningkatkan nilai total pelanggan atau menurunkan biaya pelanggan. Menawarkan kepada pelanggan yang melibatkan memberikan nilai lebih atau menurunkan biaya tidak dapat berhasil hanya dengan upaya dari departemen pemasaran tetapi harus melibatkan semua departemen perusahaan.

Oleh karena itu ada kebutuhan untuk mengenali semua komunikasi yang didorong oleh inovasi (atau didorong oleh keinginan untuk menambah nilai kepada pelanggan) sebagai bagian dari komunikasi pemasaran. Kerjasama lintas fungsi sangat penting untuk merancang dan mengimplementasikan sistem pemberian nilai pelanggan yang unggul. Oleh karena itu upaya departemen pemasaran sendiri dalam membangun strategi komunikasi mungkin tidak dapat memastikan nilai yang lebih besar. Pengakuan formal dari saling ketergantungan dalam perusahaan untuk memberikan nilai, akan membuat fokus perhatiannya membangun strategi kompetitif yang unggul.

Zaman sekarang telah direvolusi dengan komunikasi. Teknologi ilmiah yang membantunya telah memungkinkan proses ini. Dunia saat ini adalah dunia inovasi dan persaingan terbuka. Oleh karena itu, setiap perusahaan, dalam kata-kata Porter, "harus berusaha untuk menempatkan dirinya pada posisi di mana ia cenderung mempersepsikan dan mengatasi dengan baik imperatif keunggulan kompetitif".

Untuk mencapai keunggulan kompetitif ini perusahaan harus memusatkan perhatian mereka pada peningkatan dan inovasi. Ini harus menghasilkan bentuk keinginan untuk bersaing dan pemahaman yang realistis tentang lingkungan dan bagaimana memperbaikinya. Informasi dan komunikasi memainkan peran yang sangat penting dalam kemampuan dan kapasitas perusahaan untuk berinovasi dan berhasil memberikan respons kompetitif melalui penawaran nilai tambah kepada pelanggan mereka.

Di mana komunikasi telah secara signifikan memengaruhi kemampuan suatu perusahaan untuk memengaruhi dirinya sendiri, para pelanggannya, para pemasok dan industri terkait, inilah saatnya komunikasi untuk memperbarui teorinya sendiri dan meningkatkan tingkat pemahaman atas kemampuannya yang ditingkatkan.


Komunikasi Pemasaran - 5 Elemen Teratas : Periklanan, Pemasaran Langsung, Penjualan Pribadi, Hubungan Masyarakat dan Promosi Penjualan

Lima elemen dari bauran Komunikasi Pemasaran adalah Periklanan, pemasaran langsung, dan penjualan pribadi, hubungan masyarakat dan promosi penjualan. Ini dibahas di bawah.

Halaman Proses Komunikasi Pemasaran, Strategi Komunikasi Pemasaran, dan Rencana Komunikasi Pemasaran juga memberikan pemikiran dan alat tambahan untuk mengoptimalkan bauran komunikasi pemasaran Anda.

Komponen-komponen bauran komunikasi pemasaran dibahas di bawah dan dimasukkan ke dalam perspektif untuk pemasaran yang sukses untuk konsumen saat ini oleh bisnis saat ini. Meskipun pemasaran mengalami transformasi besar yang mirip dengan bisnis secara keseluruhan pada abad kedua puluh, komponen tradisional dari proses komunikasi pemasaran masih digunakan dan penting hingga saat ini.

1. Iklan :

Ini adalah metode komunikasi pemasaran media massa dan memberikan paparan kepada khalayak terbesar, yang paling tersebar secara geografis dengan biaya terendah per kepala. Yang sedang berkata, biaya iklan dapat bertambah dengan cepat dengan media seperti televisi, radio dan bahkan iklan online yang bisa sangat mahal bagi banyak bisnis.

Bentuk tradisional lain dari iklan berbayar termasuk surat kabar dan majalah, Halaman Kuning, papan iklan, poster, dan poster. Juga, beriklan di bus, bangku, pompa bensin dan bahkan toilet umum sedang populer saat ini.

Pada dasarnya, media apa pun yang memberikan peluang untuk menargetkan "mata dan / atau telinga" dapat menjadi tempat beriklan dan Anda dapat melihat contoh promosi yang sukses di tempat-tempat yang paling tidak mungkin.

2. Pemasaran Langsung :

Kompetensi komunikasi pemasaran ini memungkinkan perusahaan untuk menjangkau langsung ke konsumen tanpa saluran perantara seperti yang diperlukan untuk iklan. Komponen proses komunikasi pemasaran ini meliputi surat langsung, katalog, kupon dan sisipan, pemasaran jarak jauh, pemasaran online, dan infomersial televisi.

Dilakukan dengan benar, Pemasaran Langsung sangat efektif dalam jangka panjang dan memungkinkan pendekatan pemasaran yang ditargetkan untuk konsumen tertentu untuk menciptakan hubungan yang langgeng yang berharga.

Pemasaran Langsung adalah metode komunikasi pemasaran yang memungkinkan perusahaan untuk berinteraksi dengan sejumlah besar pelanggan dan mendorong "ajakan untuk bertindak" atau "respons yang paling dicari" yang biasanya merupakan pembelian.

Kelemahan dari Pemasaran Langsung adalah bahwa hal itu biasanya tidak diminta dan dilihat sebagai gangguan oleh masyarakat umum. Pemasaran jarak jauh, spamming email dan email sampah secara universal dibenci dan karenanya alat Pemasaran Langsung harus digunakan dengan pemikiran dan kehati-hatian. Kunjungi situs web Asosiasi Pemasaran Langsung untuk panduan tentang Pemasaran Langsung yang legal dan etis.

3. Penjualan Pribadi :

Ini adalah yang paling ditakuti serta paling mahal dari semua metode dalam proses komunikasi pemasaran. Namun, jika Anda adalah pemilik usaha kecil atau memiliki kemampuan untuk secara pribadi menjual dan membangun hubungan dengan pelanggan, itu bisa menjadi salah satu aspek yang paling bermanfaat dari proses pemasaran, baik secara pribadi maupun profesional.

Seperti halnya pemasaran tradisional, penjualan yang sukses dimulai dan berakhir dengan pelanggan. Seluruh tujuannya adalah untuk memastikan kebutuhan dan menciptakan solusi terbaik bagi pelanggan.

Sepanjang jalan Anda membangun hubungan dan terus mengumpulkan informasi tentang bagaimana Anda dapat melayani pelanggan dengan lebih baik yang merupakan alasan Anda untuk berbisnis di tempat pertama.

Penjualan dan pemasaran merupakan hal mendasar untuk kelangsungan hidup bisnis apa pun dan keduanya melibatkan penciptaan pelanggan untuk nilai bisnis yang telah Anda ciptakan. Yang pertama menargetkan satu orang atau entitas sedangkan yang kedua menargetkan banyak.

Keduanya melibatkan, menginformasikan, dan membujuk melalui berbagai alat komunikasi. Menyelaraskan keduanya akan meningkatkan kesuksesan Anda terlepas dari kondisi. Penjualan yang berhasil dan pemasaran yang sukses, keduanya dimulai dengan suatu sikap dan sikap itu adalah pelanggan pertama.

4. Hubungan Masyarakat :

Ini merujuk pada bagaimana Anda menangani hubungan Anda dan aliran informasi dengan berbagai "publik" Anda atau orang-orang yang memiliki kepentingan dalam atau dipengaruhi oleh bisnis Anda. Ini termasuk masyarakat umum, konsumen, pemegang saham, karyawan, mitra, pesaing dan pemerintah.

Hubungan masyarakat menjadi elemen yang semakin penting dari bauran komunikasi pemasaran sebagai bisnis atau organisasi tumbuh lebih besar. Yang sedang berkata, itu masih merupakan komponen penting dari proses komunikasi pemasaran untuk dipikirkan untuk bisnis kecil juga.

Alat hubungan masyarakat mencakup siaran pers dan media, lobi, acara amal dan acara publik, advertorial, laporan keuangan, jaminan promosi, tur fasilitas, sponsor, wawancara, dan metode lain apa pun untuk mempromosikan citra positif kepada orang-orang.

Sekali lagi, orang membeli dari orang pada akhir hari dan orang dan organisasi yang paling sukses adalah orang yang paling menguntungkan orang lain. Seperti halnya banyak sisi penjualan dan pemasaran, PR juga memiliki sisi "baik" dan "buruk".

Sisi baik dari hubungan masyarakat adalah memupuk praktik bisnis yang sadar sosial sedangkan sisi buruk dilambangkan dalam lobi politik yang teduh, “berputar dokter” dan sebagainya yang mengalihkan dari kebenaran sebagai lawan mempromosikannya.

Cukuplah untuk mengatakan bahwa di dunia yang terhubung saat ini, lebih dari sebelumnya, setiap organisasi berukuran perlu menyadari bahwa ia beroperasi dalam kerangka kerja yang lebih besar dari masyarakat dan memiliki tanggung jawab yang sesuai.

Situs web Institute for Public relations adalah sumber yang bagus untuk materi tambahan tentang peran Hubungan Masyarakat dalam proses komunikasi pemasaran.

5. Promosi Penjualan :

Ini adalah komponen tradisional terakhir dari campuran komunikasi pemasaran yang dibahas di sini sebagai bagian dari proses komunikasi pemasaran. Promosi penjualan hanya mengacu pada insentif pembelian yang Anda berikan kepada pelanggan Anda.

Ini dapat mengasumsikan sejumlah bentuk termasuk menawarkan barang atau layanan gratis, kupon dan voucher, hadiah dan hadiah, diskon, sampel, insentif keuangan, promosi amal dan nilai tambah lainnya di atas produk atau layanan standar Anda.


Komunikasi Pemasaran - Proses Selain dengan Area: Konsumen, Lingkungan Bisnis dan Media

Dalam proses komunikasi, ada pengiriman pesan dari pengirim ke penerima. Hasil akhir dari proses komunikasi adalah pemahaman pesan. Pesan ditransmisikan melalui media atau saluran tertentu. Respons terhadap pesan diketahui melalui umpan balik dari penerima pesan.

Komunikasi kadang-kadang gagal mencapai tujuannya - menciptakan respons atau pemahaman yang tepat ketika pesan itu terdistorsi oleh elemen 'noise'. Seorang pengirim mengkodekan pesannya, sedangkan penerima menerjemahkan pesannya.

Pengirim disebut sumber pesan. Pengkodean bisa dalam bentuk surat atau salinan iklan. Pesan tersebut dibawa oleh media, misalnya, departemen pos dan telegraf atau TV atau pers.

Pesan tersebut diterima oleh penerima yang meresponsnya, yang kemudian dikomunikasikan kembali ke sumbernya. Pesan harus menarik perhatian penerima, dipahami dan merangsang kebutuhan penerima dan menyarankan metode untuk memenuhi kebutuhan ini.

Penting bagi pengirim untuk mengetahui penerima atau audiens yang ingin mereka capai dan respons yang mereka harapkan. Garis keterampilan dalam penyandian pesan yang tepat. Seharusnya mengantisipasi bagaimana pesan akan diterjemahkan di akhir penerima. Sebagai keberhasilan utama komunikasi adalah pemahaman pesan untuk mengetahui sebanyak mungkin tentang penerima.

Media yang dipilih juga harus efisien. Saluran umpan balik dibuat agar pengirim perlu mengetahui responsnya. Dalam proses ini variabel kebisingan dapat merusak efektivitas komunikasi. Noise termasuk perencanaan pesan yang buruk, anggota audiens yang sibuk atau mekanisme umpan balik yang ceroboh.

Bidang pengalaman dan referensi yang sama memungkinkan komunikasi. Jika tidak ada tumpang tindih seperti itu, komunikasi mungkin buruk atau tidak mungkin. Umpan balik datang sebagai input riset pemasaran atau laporan penjualan. Elemen kebisingan adalah pesan promosi kompetitif.

Komunikasi dapat dibuat lebih efektif dengan memahami audiens dan pasar dengan benar. Komunikasi pemasaran adalah bagian utama dari total komunikasi korporat. Periklanan adalah elemen penting dari pemasaran.

Pengirim pesan adalah pemasar. Pesan tersebut disandikan sebagai salinan iklan, materi publikasi, tampilan penjualan, atau ceramah penjualan. Media untuk menyampaikan pesan dapat berupa media cetak seperti pers / majalah, atau elektronik seperti radio / TV / film atau wiraniaga yang melakukan pembicaraan penjualan.

Penguraian kode melibatkan interpretasi pesan oleh konsumen. Ini adalah bagian yang paling menantang dari komunikasi pemasaran, karena konsumen mungkin tidak selalu menafsirkan pesan sebagaimana yang diinginkan pemasar.

Kesulitan mendasar muncul dalam komunikasi pada tahap coding dan decoding. Ini hasil dari perbedaan dalam menafsirkan makna dari kata / simbol yang berbeda. Mungkin ada kerangka referensi dan bidang pengalaman yang berbeda antara pengirim dan penerima.

Komunikasi Pemasaran Periklanan memiliki fitur unik tertentu, yang membedakannya dari bentuk komunikasi pemasaran lainnya seperti penjualan pribadi, promosi penjualan (SP) publisitas, dan hubungan masyarakat (PR).

Untuk memfasilitasi komunikasi, sumber dan penerima harus berbagi latar belakang yang sama, pengaruh sosial dan kebutuhan. Ketika ini tumpang tindih, itu disebut tumpang tindih bidang psikologis. Semakin besar bidang yang dibagi bersama, semakin besar peluang komunikasi yang efektif.

Penggunaan komunikasi 'dogmatis' terlihat di banyak monolog komersial pada masa itu, baik dalam iklan televisi kepada konsumen maupun dalam teknik penjualan pribadi "jual keras" di pasar bisnis ke bisnis. Sayangnya, mereka kehilangan poin mendasar dari mendengarkan pemasaran dan merespons pelanggan.

Sebaliknya, tugas komunikasi pemasaran tahun 1990-an dan selanjutnya adalah mengejar dialog dengan pelanggan. Minat yang tumbuh dalam pemasaran hubungan berarti bahwa perusahaan sekarang berusaha untuk membangun hubungan jangka panjang yang saling menguntungkan dengan sejumlah audiens, termasuk pelanggan, konsumen, pemasok, pemegang saham, legislator dan karyawan.

Ada pengakuan bahwa banyak alat komunikasi tradisional kurang sesuai untuk tugas ini, dan bahwa pengembangan teknologi baru dan media interaktif memberikan kesempatan untuk berkomunikasi dengan konsumen yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya.

Komunikasi pemasaran satu-ke-satu, didorong oleh data perilaku dan diaktifkan oleh database yang kuat, menjadi norma. Karena media interaktif menyediakan potensi untuk meningkatkan keterlibatan pelanggan dengan penyedia barang dan jasa tertentu, pemasar sekarang berupaya untuk menggunakan serangkaian alat komunikasi yang jauh lebih luas untuk memfasilitasi dialog dengan pelanggan.

Penelitian terbaru menunjukkan bahwa pendorong perubahan dalam praktik komunikasi pemasaran mewakili tiga bidang utama - konsumen, lingkungan bisnis, dan media:

1. Konsumen :

Konsumen membentuk pasar di masa depan, memaksa saluran komunikasi dan distribusi berkembang sesuai dengan kebutuhan mereka. Konsumen menjadi lebih canggih, skeptis dan terpelajar pemasaran, menghadirkan pemasar dengan tantangan yang berat.

Semakin lama, konsumen akan memutuskan kapan dan bagaimana mereka ingin berkomunikasi dengan organisasi pemasok, serta berapa banyak informasi yang ingin mereka berikan tentang diri mereka sendiri, dan pada saat yang nyaman bagi mereka.

Pertumbuhan kekuatan konsumen dan meningkatnya respons 'individu sinis' terhadap iklan berarti bahwa perusahaan juga harus mempertimbangkan transparansi dan integritas pesan pemasaran mereka. Masalah etika diasumsikan lebih penting dalam agenda pemasaran, karena konsumen bukan lagi penerima pesan yang pasif, melainkan pembuat pesan mereka sendiri. Kekuatan 'suara' konsumen diilustrasikan dengan jelas oleh kegagalan Monsanto baru-baru ini.

Pada awal tahun 1999, reaksi konsumen yang merugikan terhadap berita media tentang makanan yang dimodifikasi secara genetik (GM) menyebabkan pengecer seperti Marks & Spencer dan J. Sainsbury's mundur dari dukungan asli mereka dan promosi makanan GM dan untuk men-stok semua produk tersebut. Perusahaan-perusahaan juga meluncurkan kampanye pemasaran meyakinkan pelanggan bahwa mereka telah mendengarkan mereka dan bertindak atas keprihatinan mereka.

Selain diberdayakan secara individual dan kolektif, konsumen juga tidak lagi terikat secara regional atau nasional; mereka adalah anggota masyarakat global. Kemajuan teknologi dan liputan media telah membuka dunia, memberi konsumen kesadaran dan hati nurani global.

Semakin lama, konsumen cenderung tidak mempercayai dunia korporat dan pemasar tidak dapat lagi berasumsi tentang mereka. Hanya dengan memenangkan kepercayaan mereka bahwa perusahaan dapat berharap untuk membangun hubungan dengan mereka dan mendapatkan keunggulan kompetitif.

2. Lingkungan Bisnis :

Bisnis telah berubah secara dramatis dalam dekade terakhir, dan katalis paling signifikan adalah dampak teknologi komputer pada kehidupan sehari-hari organisasi dan individu. Teknologi informasi dan komunikasi, atau TIK, telah memfasilitasi revolusi dalam jumlah yang tipis, kecepatan kilat, dan penurunan biaya pemrosesan informasi.

Untuk bisnis, salah satu dampak terbesar adalah akses ke informasi tentang pelanggan dan konsumen. Sementara keuntungan nyata ini tersedia bagi banyak orang, perusahaan yang paling sukses adalah mereka yang menggunakan informasi ini untuk memberikan nilai pelanggan yang unggul.

Di Inggris, pengecer telah mengembangkan skema loyalitas yang memungkinkan mereka melakukan hal ini, dan pelanggan merespons dengan semakin berkomitmen pada hubungan dengan supermarket mereka, daripada setiap merek produk individu. Namun, banyak organisasi telah melihat pengaruh mereka terhadap konsumen memburuk dengan cepat.

Ini karena 'hubungan' yang ada antara pemasok dan pembeli didasarkan pada janji nilai yang unggul, yang terbukti hampa dengan munculnya produk-produk berkualitas baik, harga rendah, dan berlabel sendiri. Ini terutama terjadi pada produsen FMCG (barang konsumen yang bergerak cepat) yang, seperti yang dinyatakan sebelumnya, mengandalkan komunikasi massa.

Perkembangan dalam teknologi komputer juga memungkinkan perusahaan dengan basis pelanggan besar untuk memberikan tingkat layanan individual yang superior dan untuk menyesuaikan produk atau layanan yang mereka tawarkan agar sesuai dengan pelanggan.

First Direct merevolusi perbankan pribadi dengan menawarkan akses dan kenyamanan pelanggan yang lebih besar melalui pengenalan layanan perbankan 24 jam. Inisiatif yang berfokus pada pelanggan ini telah memenangkan banyak hubungan pelanggan yang menguntungkan perusahaan, serta pengakuan berkala karena memiliki pelanggan yang paling puas di sektor ini.

Menariknya, banyak ikon jalan raya menderita di lingkungan bisnis Inggris pada akhir 1990-an, Marks & Spencer menjadi yang paling terkenal di antara mereka. Tampaknya perusahaan yang paling sukses saat ini adalah mereka yang mengubah aturan, seperti Amazon.com, pengecer buku internet dan Dell, perusahaan komputer.

Perusahaan-perusahaan ini terlibat dengan pelanggan dengan cara yang baru dan inovatif, yang melibatkan memfasilitasi hubungan jangka panjang dengan pelanggan yang mereka menangkan. Daripada menganggap perubahan lingkungan bisnis sebagai hal yang tidak disukai, mereka dengan bersemangat mengeksploitasinya, demi keuntungan utama konsumen.

3. Media :

Dalam sepuluh tahun terakhir, peta media dunia telah digambar ulang sebagai hasil dari proliferasi dan fragmentasi media. Di masa lalu, mudah bagi perusahaan untuk menjangkau sejumlah besar konsumen dengan iklan yang relatif sedikit.

Misalnya, di AS pada tahun 1960, sebuah iklan di televisi jaringan prime time mencapai lebih dari 90 persen dari semua rumah tangga. Namun, pada tahun 1994, tiga jaringan yang sama hanya dapat memberikan 50 persen dari seluruh rumah tangga.

Peningkatan saluran televisi saluran dan satelit, penyediaan informasi dan hiburan melalui Internet, majalah, dan layanan radio dan teleteks, dan beralih ke kebiasaan waktu luang alternatif berarti bahwa konsumen mengambil bagian dalam berbagai kegiatan yang jauh lebih luas daripada sebelumnya. Dengan begitu banyak kekuatan yang bersaing, perhatian mereka lebih sulit ditangkap dan kesabaran mereka dengan pesan pemasaran berkurang.

Diperkirakan bahwa konsumen dibombardir hingga 3000 komunikasi dan pesan setiap hari, dan sebagai hasilnya mereka menjadi jauh lebih cerdas mengenai yang mana yang mereka dengarkan, apalagi menanggapi. Berkurangnya akses ke kelompok besar pelanggan potensial melalui televisi telah membuatnya menjadi jauh lebih sulit dan lebih mahal bagi pengiklan dan agensi mereka untuk berkomunikasi melalui pesan massal.

Penelitian oleh Howell, Henry, Chaldecott, Lury (HHCL) menemukan bahwa orang yang menonton televisi secara teratur juga mempraktikkan berbagai kegiatan di depan perangkat televisi mereka, menggunakan mereka seperti radio sebagai hiburan latar belakang. Selain itu, peningkatan penggunaan perangkat dan video kendali jarak jauh berarti bahwa banyak pemirsa menyalurkan saluran atau mempercepat saat iklan disiarkan, mengurangi pengiriman dan dampak dari pesan iklan.

Kebiasaan yang berkembang di kalangan pemirsa ini memiliki implikasi besar bagi pemasar mana pun yang mempertimbangkan untuk mengeluarkan £ 150000 untuk menampilkan iklan terbaru mereka pada slot 30 detik selama opera sabun televisi populer seperti 'Coronation Street'.

Di Inggris, konsumsi stasiun komersial pasar 'relatif' sekarang jauh lebih tinggi di antara pemirsa yang lebih tua dan kelompok sosial ekonomi yang lebih rendah. Penelitian Henley Center mengkonfirmasi hal ini, menunjukkan bahwa semakin 'pasar' sebuah toko adalah; semakin kecil kemungkinannya bahwa barang bermerek dibeli dari sana.

Temuan ini dikaitkan dengan menonton televisi ringan dari kelompok sosial ekonomi tingkat tinggi yang tidak dipengaruhi oleh pesan merek yang ditransmisikan pada saluran penyiaran utama. Banyak pemasar mengakui bahwa menjadi sangat sulit untuk berkomunikasi dengan orang yang berpenghasilan tinggi dan pria yang lebih muda, karena kebiasaan media mereka semakin individualistis dan beragam.

Serta perubahan dalam jenis audiens yang dapat dicapai melalui saluran media yang lebih tradisional, pertumbuhan luar biasa dalam pasokan media telah membuat implementasi program komunikasi menjadi tugas yang jauh lebih kompleks. Pilihan alat komunikasi dan media sangat luas dan, seperti diperlihatkan oleh Gambar 13.2, calon dan pelanggan yang ada sekarang dapat dijangkau dalam jumlah yang jauh lebih besar daripada yang mungkin terjadi hanya satu dekade yang lalu.

Antusiasme konsumen terhadap media baru menentukan komunikasi masa depan. Perkembangan perangkat interaktif dalam periklanan, surat langsung dan Internet telah membantu meningkatkan keragaman metode untuk berkomunikasi dan bertukar informasi.

Secara khusus, email, grup diskusi, pertukaran dan pengunduhan data, iklan online dan situs web yang terhubung semuanya menyediakan cara baru untuk mengembangkan, memperkuat atau memengaruhi hubungan dengan pelanggan, karyawan, media, pemasok, dan bahkan pesaing.

Sudah pasti bahwa peningkatan akses dan penggunaan teknologi Internet akan berarti bahwa berkomunikasi langsung dengan pelanggan akan menjadi pilihan yang jauh lebih murah dan lebih cepat bagi pemasar.

Singkatnya, pemberdayaan konsumen, kemajuan teknologi, fragmentasi media dan tekanan pada pemasar untuk membenarkan pengembalian pengeluaran komunikasi pemasaran semakin mengintensifkan kebutuhan untuk memeriksa kembali dengan tepat bagaimana pemasar merencanakan dan menerapkan strategi komunikasi mereka.

Hanya baru-baru ini telah ada pengakuan luas tentang persyaratan untuk mengintegrasikan berbagai pesan, informasi dan gambar yang digunakan untuk mempengaruhi berbagai pemangku kepentingan perusahaan.

Penambahan Nilai untuk Pelanggan dan Masyarakat :

Komunikasi, sekali lagi, tidak hanya dengan pelanggan saat ini dan calon tetapi juga dengan karyawan, vendor, industri terkait, faktor-faktor canggih lainnya seperti sumber daya manusia termasuk sumber daya terampil dan ilmiah dan lingkungan eksternal. Apresiasi terhadap peran komunikasi ini sangat penting dalam industri “pengetahuan intensif”. Tugas utama dari semua upaya perusahaan adalah untuk menyusun strategi kompetitif dan komunikasi dapat berkontribusi secara efektif.

Pelatihan dalam perusahaan adalah salah satu alat komunikasi terpenting. Strategi komunikasi dalam perusahaan yang baik tentang apa yang dibutuhkan pelanggan dan kebutuhan untuk memastikan pengendalian biaya atau meningkatkan kepuasan pelanggan dapat membantu meningkatkan produktivitas, profitabilitas, serta menawarkan nilai dan kepuasan kepada pelanggan. Ini terutama akan menjadi kasus sebagai elemen layanan yang melekat pada produk terus meningkat.


Komunikasi Pemasaran - Peran dalam Membangun Merek

Komunikasi pemasaran memiliki peran penting dalam membangun merek di pasar dan kasus pembukaan ponsel micromax dengan tepat mendukung gagasan ini. Iklan media massa, penjualan pribadi, hubungan masyarakat, publikasi dan promosi penjualan - adalah berbagai alat komunikasi yang biasanya digunakan pemasar untuk mengatasi masalah komunikasi yang dihadapi merek di pasar dan sebagai bagian dari promosi produk.

Alat-alat ini digabungkan secara berbeda untuk berbagai merek dan masing-masing kombinasi tersebut merupakan campuran promosi untuk suatu merek. Karena, merek yang berbeda memiliki masalah komunikasi yang berbeda, bauran promosi untuk masing-masing merek berbeda dalam hal jenis dan juga tingkat penekanan pada penggunaan berbagai alat promosi.

Faktor-faktor seperti - sifat produk, jenis pelanggan, ketersediaan dana dan keterampilan dengan organisasi dan jenis lingkungan pemasaran - lebih lanjut memengaruhi campuran alat promosi ini untuk merek tertentu.

Komunikasi pemasaran yang terjadi melalui alat promosi menyediakan informasi dan dasar persuasi bagi konsumen sasaran. Jadi, ini berfungsi sebagai 'stimulus' yang dapat memicu proses pengambilan keputusan dan juga membantu dalam pengambilan keputusan yang tepat. Penting untuk dicatat di sini bahwa komunikasi pemasaran yang terjadi melalui penggunaan alat promosi hanyalah salah satu rangsangan yang mempengaruhi pengambilan keputusan tentang produk.

Fitur produk, kualitas, nama merek, paket, dan harga, juga, memiliki nilai komunikasi untuk produk dan rangsangan yang lebih dominan dalam mempengaruhi pembelian produk. Dalam hal ini, mempertimbangkan komunikasi pemasaran sebagai seperangkat alat promosi hanya benar-benar membatasi ruang lingkupnya dan memberikan perspektif yang sangat sempit untuk konsep tersebut.

Sebagai gantinya, kita perlu memahami komunikasi di luar alat komunikasi formal ini dan menyadari bahwa ada cara non-formal juga yang berkomunikasi tentang merek.

Dasar-dasar komunikasi dan menjelaskan proses komunikasi yang mendasarinya. Konsep komunikasi pemasaran dibahas untuk menjelaskan sifat khusus yang berkaitan dengan hubungannya dengan pasar.

Berbagai langkah perencanaan komunikasi dijelaskan pada akhirnya untuk membantu memahami perbedaan antara komunikasi pemasaran yang efektif dan tidak efektif. Untuk memasarkan komunikasi dan menjelaskan pendekatan integratif dan implikasinya untuk perencanaan komunikasi.


Komunikasi Pemasaran - 2 Pendekatan Utama Komunikasi Pemasaran : Pendekatan Korporat dan Pemasaran

Organisasi berbeda dalam pendekatan mereka terhadap Perencanaan Komunikasi Pemasaran. Namun, ada dua pendekatan luas yang dipraktikkan secara umum.

1. Pendekatan Perusahaan :

Meskipun ada perubahan yang terjadi atau bahkan menyusul kami, ada organisasi yang menganggap promosi sebagai biaya "ekstra". Organisasi semacam itu percaya produk mereka unik dan mereka berada dalam posisi yang baik untuk menentukan persyaratan.

Maskapai penerbangan domestik akan menjadi contoh yang sangat baik. Tidak ada alternatif untuk penumpang udara selain Indian Airlines untuk penerbangan domestik. Organisasi itu tidak berorientasi pada pemasaran.

Aturan-aturan diubah agar sesuai dengan keinginan dan fantasi Organisasi. Misalnya, sebagian besar maskapai memiliki tarif umum seperti, penumpang yang terbang (ke arah mana pun) Mumbai-Chennai dapat membayar tarif yang sama untuk Mumbai-Bangalore-Chennai. Demikian halnya dengan Indian Airlines sampai suatu hari manajemen mereka memutuskan untuk mengenakan biaya sektor. This was to maximise revenue.

This millennium saw the advent of private airlines. Now, there are all kinds of concessional fares and Indian Airlines (now merged with Air India) is not only marketing oriented but is also innovative in its approach to building relationships.

Another example would be our automotive industry. Before liberalisation, there were just three manufacturers (one went out of business) all in a seller's market – with long wait lists. Similar was the condition with telephones. These were all production oriented.

2. Marketing-Oriented Approach :

In organisations that utilise marketing approach, marketing communications is given the importance and seriousness it deserves. Besides, it is notionally treated as a capital expense (reason being APSP – Advertising, Publicity, Sales Promotion as a heading in the Accounting to suit the law in our country, which ensures the entire expense is accounted) and, for every new product, the ROI concept is used. This ROI in some companies, for new products, could be after as much as five years.

In such organisations, outstanding marketing communications is encouraged since this is a source of building competitive advantage, particularly among competing products with little or no difference at all.

Developing Marketing Communications, earlier, involved answering a few questions.

Ini adalah:

saya. What are we selling?

ii. To whom are we selling?

aku aku aku. Where are we selling?

iv. When are we selling?

v. How are we selling?

The answers had to be in great detail – it is not enough to say we are selling a product. We need to describe how it is a better product, the name, competition, etc., and similarly for all the questions.

Since the world of ours is not that simple anymore, we develop marketing communications by going through several steps starting with situation analysis.

These steps are:

saya. Selection analysis,

ii. Review of marketing programme,

aku aku aku. Setting marketing objectives,

iv. Branding strategy,

v. Packaging,

vi. Positioning strategy,

vii. Strategic messages,

viii. Media strategies,

ix. Promotion strategies,

x. Public relations,

xi. Sponsorship,

xii. Publicity,

xiii. Sales forces,

xiv. Point of purchase promotion,

xv. Budget formulation,

xvi. Implementation of communication strategy, and

xvii. Evaluation & feedback.


Marketing Communication – Strategy : Overall Cost Leadership, Differentiation and Focus

Strategy – Build it with Integrated Communication :

Corporate strategy depends on understanding the business and marketing environments. Only after a correct understanding of the environment has resulted can the Marketing or Marketing Communication planning be determined. Hence strategy should be one that flows thematically across the corporate and marketing plans to the promotion planning process of the firm.

In today's competitive scenario communication strategy cannot ignore the imperative of competitive advantage. In fact, strategy of a firm should germinate from its ability to (a) perceive and (b) create this advantage through value added offerings. Communicating the competitive advantage of this value added is the third or final task to which all discussions of communication strategy are usually restricted.

It is suggested that a full appreciation of communication strategy is not possible unless all the three roles are understood. A firm's strategy, thus, has to be built with communication. Before exploring the inter-relationship of communication and strategy building, it may be useful to begin with the parameters of strategy first.

Three Generic Strategies and their 3 Strategic Fits :

To counter the competitive forces, Porter shows how the firm's Strategy can be built in 3 ways:

1. Overall cost leadership – Developing a focused concern for and investing in cost-saving processes enables this. So does a high market share, economies of scale in production or favourable access to raw material.

2. Differentiation – This is the ability to create something that is perceived as unique. This could be in product design, brand image, technology, product features, customer service, dealer network of other dimensions.

3. Focus – Instead of targeting the complete market, the firm focuses on a particular buyer group or geographic market to serve it more effectively and efficiently.

Each of the three generic strategies can be fulfilled if the three fits, listed by Porter, occur in all the activities undertaken by the firm.

A successful strategy should ensure that these three things are occurring in the activities as well as their interactive process within the firm.

saya. Simple-consistency – There should be a consistency between each activity (function) and overall strategy. Identifying the three C's of communication strategy of a firm in the manner described here enables this simple consistency to occur. Co-operation between the functions of the firm followed by a focused concern for ensuring consistency leads to delivery of the firm's competitive response.

ii. Reinforcement – The various activities of the firm should reinforce each other. This is exactly what identification of the 3C processes seeks to do.

aku aku aku. Optimisation Effort – The configuration of the individual activities of the firm and the way they relate to each other should be an optimisation effort. This, is the objective of identification of the 3C processes.

The task of communication within a firm is, therefore, to ensure that its activities are consistent, reinforcing and optimising in nature. The ability of communication to ensure this will enable the firms competitive advantage as well as competitive success. Communication strategy and firm's strategy building processes therefore flow with each other. The communication processes help build the strategic processes of the firm. This appreciation requires having a relook at the role of communication, as it has been popularly understood, till date.

From Integrated Marketing Communication to Integrated Communication Concept :

The focus of integrated marketing Communication is to integrate all sources that deliver the outflow of communication from the firm to ensure the delivery of a clear and consistent message to target markets. The integrated communication concept, on the other hand, stresses on the dynamic integration between both inward and outward channels of communication.

This enables a consistent, mutually reinforcing and optimisation effort to make the firms plan and build its strategy. Finally, the integrated marketing communication of the firm is developed. This enlarges the appreciation of the role of communication to – (a) highlight its contribution to the value addition process of the firm and (b) enable the delivery of the value added with the help of a clear consistent message.

The Integrated Communication concept starts with the customer as a focus and recognises that his needs and wants are evolving and not static. It recognises that firms need to build their communication processes keeping in mind the three forces that are acting on consumer needs at all times.

These forces of Primary influences on consumer needs and wants are:

saya. Seeking better value delivery for current wants through current products:

This is met by the firm's ability to satisfy current consumer wants through current products in a better way. This often requires modification strategies only. The modification could be in production or distribution processes, product attributes or in carrying products uses.

ii. Seeking better value delivery for current wants through alternate products:

Alternate strategies are required when there are alternate ways of satisfying current wants which are developing or have developed. Technology usually builds up such threats. Kodak for example is worrying about the long-run threat from the recent invention of filmless camera. This is one of the biggest threats to the film business.

aku aku aku. Seeking better value delivery for new wants through new products:

New strategies are required for new emerging want opportunities in the market emerging from new innovations that the firm can offer. Such innovations could be the result of working closely with the customers or they could emerge from related or supporting industries, firm's own R & D or by new people joining the firm or its competitors. The role of supporting industries and links between scientific people across firms in spurring innovations has been widely acknowledged.

(a) The national environment and available international resources.

(b) Forces within the firm to spur innovation, deliver 3 fits and manage the dynamics of competition and co-operation,

(c) With customers.

This can ensure that it is able to devise a competitive strategy that delivers customers additional value and gives the firm a long-term competitive advantage.

To build these linkages it:

(a) Needs to appreciate the determinants of competitive advantage especially in the national context the firm operates in.

(b) Needs to learn from internal practices of firms seeking excellence.

(c) Use tools of strategy building in a manner that is competitive strategy is delivered by activities that are consistent, reinforcing and optimum.

A good communication strategy builds channels that help the firm absorb information from the environment especially the national environment, enable it to 'process' the absorbed information within the organisation in such a way it can offer a unique delivered value to customers and finally communicate this value added to them in a manner that they can perceive it.


Marketing Communication – Planning and Strategy Inter-Relationship of Marketing Communication

Planning and Strategy Depend on Communication :

All three tasks of planning, communication and strategy formulation are interdependent. Communication, however, is the key tool they use. The role of communication within the firm nurtures and fosters the process of bottom-up planning. One of the advantages of such a process could be what Ries and Trout call “Bottom-up” marketing where one marketing tactic generates the necessary value to build a strategy around it.

When the same bottom-up communication happens in non-marketing departments along with an upgradation of skills, knowledge of techniques of production and understanding of customer needs it could lead to cost advantage, productivity increase or even innovation as in new product and process ideas. The advantages that “good communicator” organisations have are the ones crucial to attaining strategic positions and competitive advantage. Hence both strategy and planning depend upon communication.

Communication, Too, Should Germinate from Planning and Strategy:

Communication, that germinates from needs of planning and subsequent development of strategy enables the creation and delivery of additional value, lower cost or both. The answer, then, to the 5 W's of communication (listed below) cannot be found without inputs from firms planning and strategy development process. These 5 W's are – Who (source). What (message), Whom (audience), Which (channels) medium and with What effect.


Marketing Communication – The Role of Communication in Value Creation and Delivery

Communication has critical role to play in the new competitive scenario where global players have easy access to local markets and can deliver better value to the customer if the local firm has not kept itself abreast of developments in technologies, processes, marketing and changing nature of consumer demand. To safeguard its position the firm has to develop and nurture its channels of communication to enable it to anticipate and adequately meet these challenges.

Primary Influences on Consumer – The Basis of Communication Strategy:

This study of communication strategy begins by taking a dynamic view of the customer. The customer and his wants are not taken to be static which respond to give cues. Instead it is an exercise that recognises the involving nature of the customer and seeks to understand the influences working on him. Instead of using predetermined cues, it is itself in the process of seeking those cues that can help to comprehend the influences on the customer in better way.

To understand the primary influences on the customer we have to appreciate the factors which are the main influencers. These influencers are both internal and external to the customer. The internal influencer is the 'inner drive'. For simplicity it is being shown as being expressed in two ways ie seeking better value and individuality and creativity. It is affected by the position of the customer in Maslow's need hierarchy. Customers at the lower level of need hierarchy may express their individuality and creativity in a different way while seeking better value. The inner influencers form part of the customers private 'self'.

Communication is the common thread that not only ties up the customers private 'self with the 'outside influencers' but also has a role in linking the outside influencers with each other too.

The outside influencers are:

(i) Growth of knowledge and information

(ii) Technology and its ability to deliver products

(iii) The socialisation process.

The growth of knowledge and availability of information has an impact on the process of technology development. This creates not only the present products but also new products through efforts of firms. Technology influences the way customers fulfill their needs. This sometimes has social implications. Often these may be hidden influences.

While seeking better value is an inner desire of all customers, it is the individuality of customer which enables segmentation. All customers do not seek greater value in exactly the same way. They have their individuality of needs. Creativity is another important variable which imparts the element of dynamism to customer wants. This aspect makes the study of marketing management interesting.

Customers possess an ability that enables then to relate the ever-increasing knowledge and information in new and different ways. This creates the need for better products to satisfy current wants. This creative process can shape new wants as the customer is exposed to greater information, knowledge and technology possibilities in the socialisation process of course, some customers and firms may prefer status quo in varying degrees.

Such firms may be less exposed to the growing information and knowledge or may not be able to develop access to it. Organisational inertia may be a cause of this. Similarly, some customers may not be inclined to assimilate the new learning curve that consumption of new products may require. Others may not feel the need for doing so. Their response to the influencers may be slower or non-existent.

The influencers' impact on the customer results in the emergence of the primary influencers for customer wants. These primary influences can be satisfied through present, new and alternate products.

We have seen above that the value seeking customer has three primary influences working on him.

a) Seeking better value delivery for current wants through current products ie the desire to satisfy the present needs and wants through present products in a better way,

b) Seeking better value delivery of current wants through alternate products ie alternate ways of satisfying present needs and wants.

c) Seeking better value delivery of new wants through new products. Here products have to be designed for fulfilling new and emerging needs and wants.

The value seeking customer re-shapes his current wants which can be satisfied with present or modified present products. These could also be satisfied through alternate products that satisfy the same want in a different way. Emerging or new wants, being different from current ones, are unlikely to be satisfied with present products or even their alternates.

The nature of these three primary influences give a new dimension to the firm's dynamism. Firms which ignore the continuing nature of these influences are unlikely to hold loyalty of such customers who keep evolving their needs and wants based on new information and knowledge. To keep their loyalty the firm has to concentrate on the wants of the customer and develop and adapt its products to suit them. This may require different strategic choices.

For giving better value through present products, firms may need to rely upon modification strategies. The modification could be in product features and attributes or in production processes to give more efficiency and result in lower cost for customers. The quality of product could be improved and newer models designed to suit individual needs offered. The styling of the product could be improved to improve its functional use.

Even repositioning could be done to highlight those features which can give additional value but were not perceived by the customer in that manner. New or alternate distribution channels may be opened to make it more convenient for customers to access the product.

Technology fuelled by growth of knowledge could create alternate ways of satisfying current wants. Such threats could be faced more by firms in the knowledge based industries. Development of new software could make many old processes redundant. The use of computers could change delivery of banking services. Internet has opened many new possibilities. In the area of impact of technology Kodak, for example is worrying about the invention of the filmless camera and the bearing this could have on its future business.

The firm also needs to develop new products to meet the emerging wants of the customers. While the customer has many alternatives in terms of firms and countries offering products, the individual firm has to develop core strengths that can help build systems as well as structure that augments innovation. This process should form a part of the firm's strategy. Innovation, often results from working close with the customer or from cooperation within the firm's departments with a concerned focus for delivering better value.

It could also emerge from cooperating with related or supporting industries, firm's own R & D as well as new people joining the firm. Even if a firm keeps track of competitors who have inducted new people, a study of their responses and processes could give a firm many new ideas. Links with scientific community, laboratories, universities and other research institution also helps the firm prepare itself for the challenge of change thrown up by the new and emerging wants of customers.

The firm and the customers view the changing nature of time differently. Customers view the future based on the three primary influences working on them. Firms have to understand these primary influences but prepare for their future using core strengths.

While the customer can choose products that are being offered by firms all over the world, the firm that has to offer has to produce these products within its own national context. Of course, it can set up production facilities overseas but even at the new location it will be working within a national context.

The national context, then, emerges as a critical variable in determining how firms address their future and its tasks. However, firms may choose a national context to work in.

Firms, therefore, to succeed have to plan to achieve a competitive advantage through present and future product offerings in a given/chosen national context.


Marketing Communication – The Relevance of National 'Diamond' and Mckinsey's 7S Model in Communication Theory

Porter's theory of competitive advantage shows that there are 4 determinants of competitive advantage within a nation or a national context. These form the “diamond”. The favourable factors (and therefore strategic choices before the firm) in producing the product are largely determined by the forces working along the 'diamond'. Therefore, the first task of communication strategy is to build its communication channels around the forces working within the diamond to enable it to formulate winning strategies that can make it offer enhanced value to its customers.

The four determinants are:

Sebuah. Factor conditions.

b. Demand conditions.

c. Related and supporting industries.

d. Firm structure and nature of competition within an industry.

The ability of a firm to succeed within a national context depends on:

a) How is it able to seek information and build communication channels with the determinants of competitive advantage.

b) Process the 'information' received within the firm to formulate a value adding strategy. For doing this task it has to be understood how firms seeking excellence build their organisation strategy. The Mckinsey's 7S Model illustrated here is a good beginning along with a study of excellence-seeking processes of successful firms.

c) Communicate the strategy with customers to enable them to perceive the value addition.


Marketing Communication – The New Model of 'Communication and Strategy'

Keeping these tasks in mind the imperatives of the firm's strategy building efforts can be summed up in Figure 14.7. Kotler, when discussing about the development of management thought, has remarked – In the 60's “Theory Y” called on companies to treat their employees not as cogs in a machine but as individuals whose creativity can be released through enlightened marketing practice.

In the 70's “Strategic Planning” offered way of thinking about building and managing company's portfolio of businesses in a turbulent environment. In 80's “Excellence and Quality” received major attention as new formulas of success. All of these are valued and inspire business thinking. In the 90's many firms have acknowledged the critical importance of being customer-driven in all their activities. It is not enough to be product- driven or technology-driven … Success in 1990's and beyond rests on a market and customer based view of business. “This analysis seeks to present such a view”.

Therefore it seeks to create a 'fit' between the firm's activities and the customers emerging requirements. Firms that are able to generate this 'fit' or this match between product and market/customer are likely to build competitive advantage and achieve competitive success.

Figure 14.7 presents a customer-centric view of the market, the opportunities it presents as well as how the individual firm can develop its strategic responses. Each of the lines representing the boundaries of the concentric circles could represent channels of two way communication.

The first two concentric circles represent the interactive nature of customer wants and market opportunities. The last 3 concentric circles represent the three C's which are the necessary ingredients of both communication and strategy building. These help develop the firm's competitive response to the customers need and the market opportunities that they create.

Fig. 14.7. The Customer, Home Nation, Firm and Society's Interaction during the Process of Value Creation

The area outside the concentric circle (firm's interaction with society) will be discussed in point 4 below.

These 3 represent processes of strategy and communication.

Ini adalah:

1. Co-Operation:

(The first C and the area within the third concentric circle). The circle mainly represents External communication (communication with external world) to generate a 'net inflow' or information. This entails both working closely with sophisticated buyers (through understanding 'home demand composition' in the demand conditions) and developing communication channels around the determinants of national competitive advantage.

In fact, working closely with sophisticated buyers and trade association is so important that it needs separate attention. A good framework of understanding this process is through appreciating Porter's National Diamond arid the implication it has for both the firm's strategy development and communication strategy.

2. Focused Concern:

(The Second 'C' and the area within the fourth concentric circle) For successful strategy development two focal strength need to be developed by the firm in this concentric circle.

Ini adalah:

saya. Internal communication (processing) – To internalise the interaction or “process” the inputs received. A good framework of understanding this process is through Mckinsey model and study of processes of firms seeking excellence.

ii. (Discrimination) – This implies the ability to sift the 'wheat' from the 'chaff ie, separate the relevant information from the irrelevant one. Then it should identify where the firm can add value. This needs a good understanding of the firm's current strengths as well as realistic assessment of the strengths it can or needs to develop. It also implies an ability to identify the key activities critical for the firm's competitive success and to focus on them.

The area of focused concern contains within itself the forces of both cooperation and competition which have to be managed with discrimination.

3. Competitive Response:

(The third 'C' and the area within the fifth concentric circle). This represents the area of execution of both strategy and communication with the customer (ie, Net Outflow) – The firm develops the delivery system for its competitive response. The firm has two tasks here, (a) delivery value added (b) making the customer correctly perceive the value addition. Such communication of the value added to the customer when done makes the marketing communication meaningful.

(Net outflow is the term used here because inflow of information through distribution channels, salesmen, Market Research (MR) etc., also exist in this circle).

4. The above 3C's represent the present processes of communication and strategy (whether formally planned or informally achieved). However, some unfulfilled tasks remain in the depiction of the three C's. When the interaction between the firm and society generates competitive responses that are compatible with society's long-term interests, the 4th C emerges.

Satisfying customer wants and serving long-run customer interests may not always be the same thing. Firms need to study the impact of their offerings on social processes, earth's resources as well as look at other legal, ethical and moral issues. When a firm has anticipated these issues, it enables a competitive response that benefits from a compatibility advantage.

This offers the customers, firms, cluster, industry, nations and society the advantage of compatibility in their value seeking, value delivery and value creation processes. It ensures that conflicts that are reflected today through concerns for environment, decay in cultural values through influences of new behaviour patterns and lifestyles associated with 'development', ethical and legal issues are resolved by informal processes of firms and society before they can arise. The emphasis here is on tempering the growth of knowledge with the realisation of wisdom.

saya. The First 'C' Co-Operation – Helping Firms, and Industry:

The firm, in today's scenario of global competition, is likely to have its fortunes interlinked with the cluster, industry and home nation. Global market shares depend on competitive strategies built on the strength of a home nation's competitive advantage. This competitive advantage is usually the result of cooperation and communication.

Cooperation – The New Challenge for Communication:

Porter's study of competitive advantage of nations has thrown up a new challenge to firms and nations that wish to achieve competitive success. The challenge is one of cooperation. Firms can no longer fight shy of cooperating if they need to build up their own competitive strategy and their nations competitive advantage. Governments, it has been demonstrated, have a marginal role to play.

The dynamics of competition and cooperation has to be nurtured by domestic firms themselves in their quest for excellence and competitive strategy. In fact, Porter conclusively observes that the greater the degree of competition, the more conducive the environment for cooperation to generate innovative results.

Cooperation is essential to augment the firm capabilities. The consumer needs are not static but are empowered by the dynamism of the three primary influences. The firm has a national context, an internal structure and the option of building channels of communication that are backed by easy international flow of certain information and offerings. The firm has to adequately meet the challenge of change imposed by influences on consumer. For this it has to recognise the imperative of cooperation.

Often innovation that reshapes products and creates new products is the result of cooperation. Information plays a large role in innovation. Innovation is in both methods and technology. Innovation in methods involves, new production methods, new ways of marketing, identification of new customer groups etc. Organisational inertia is the biggest barrier to the possibilities of innovation.

For sustaining advantages the firm has to continually move earlier than its rivals. The ability of the firm to innovate has much to do with information sources available and consulted by it. Information that will be useful is that which is not sought or available to competitors, or information available to others that is interpreted in new ways. Sometimes it results from sheer investments in R & D and Market Research. Seeking information, that can help the firm respond to the primary influences working on the customer, implies cooperation. The cooperation is the new challenge for communication.

The National Diamond Implies Cooperation and Communication:

Porter states, “The mutually reinforcing activities of the diamond all conceal important channels of communication that add value, give competitive advantage and therefore marketing strengths. All these channels, therefore, contribute to both firm as well as marketing strategy”.

Further, he elaborates “Underlying the operation of the national diamond and the phenomenon of clustering is the exchange and flow of information about needs, techniques and technology among buyers, suppliers and related industries”.

Finally, he concludes that “Advantages throughout the diamond are necessary for sustaining competitive success in knowledge intensive industries. Advantage in every determinant is not a prerequisite but the interplay of advantage in many determinants yields self-reinforcing benefits that are hard to nullify and replicate.” This interplay is the result of cooperation.

Role of Cooperation in Firms Strategy Building:

The 'diamond' highlights the role of factor conditions, related and supporting industries and demand conditions. Among factor conditions, the advanced factors are critical in our analysis for they include modern digital data communication, educated personnel & university research institutes. The advanced factors are now the most significant factors to achieve higher order competitive advantages like differentiated products and proprietary production technology.

They have to be built by human resources and capital factors and may be difficult to procure in the global market. The US stock of human skills and scientific experience in both computer hardware and software interact and cooperate to yield advantage not only in these industries but also related ones like medical electronics and financial services. The advanced and specialised factors reflect the firms capacity to absorb information, process and add value through its products, process and design. Therefore they reflect the cooperation, communication and innovation abilities of the firm.

Sometimes, the home base advantage itself can even be translated through a communication strategy to create an international competitive position.

Competitive advantage comes not only through using current factors but also through factor creation. It is firms (and not the governments) in most cases that indulge in factor creation that leads to factor advantage in industries. The Italians indulge in factor creation through cooperation by transfers of knowledge within extended families for there is strong family inter-linkage between operating firms in most of the industries.

Cooperation of working with buyers, suppliers and channels involves not only helping them upgrade and extend their own competitive advantage. Open communication with suppliers can give early access to new equipment, supplies and ideas that are critical for creating competitive advantage.

The Japanese case illustrates how working closely with suppliers with free information flows lead to superb service and rapid changes. The role of related industries in spurring innovation has been widely acknowledged and recorded. It is cooperation that builds channels of communication which lead to sharing technology, channels and buyers.

Similarly demand conditions are important for a firms success. Understanding buyer needs requires access to buyers, seeking their cooperation through building open communication between them and a firm's top technical and managerial personnel. This interaction should help create an intuitive grasp of buyer circumstances. Again, firms that 'cooperate' and do not shy away from demanding buyers push a firm towards innovation.

However, working with them alone may unnecessarily drain resources or may not produce commensurate results. Ries & Trout call it as “Bottom-up” marketing . This tactic can be the basis of a winning strategy. The inability to understand the changing market place, customers and the need to provide competitive values has created a situation where some powerful US companies of the '70s are struggling to remain profitable today.

ii. The Second 'C'- Focused Concern :

The first task, while discussing focused concern, is to recognise that the area of focused concern contains within itself pressures of both cooperation and competition. It is like the brain bank of the firm which not only processes the received information but perceives the information in a way that is capable of translating itself through value added processes, techniques, product etc. The “discrimination” ability is the key variable here. The same information may be available to more than one firm, yet the response to the information can be different.

Therefore, the task of sifting the relevant information from the irrelevant is important. Viewing the relevant information in a different way is the next task. Moreover, the dividing line between cooperation and competition as well as managing its dynamics both within the firm and with the outside world needs discriminating ability.

A firm needs to be clear about what information to share with competitors, cluster and industry and what secrets to keep. This is the role of discrimination. Finally the firm has to decide how to optimise and reinforce activities in a consistent way. Discrimination, again, plays a role (though a different one) here.

aku aku aku. The Third 'C' – Competitive Response :

The firm's strategy, as has been pointed out earlier, is a flow. What is the nature of this flow? How do the marketing and communication tasks flow from strategy? How and where do the various tools of strategy contribute to this flow? The discussion below will explore answers to these questions.

Delivering the 3 Strategic Fits Implies Using the 3 Cs :

Strategy building by the firm is not an event but a process. Understanding the importance as well as dynamics of this process results in competitive success. Every firm irrespective of size, location or position in the market is indulging in this process formally or informally. The advantage for formally acknowledging the process is that due importance can be given to certain key activities which were related as “informal” in nature and therefore left to the judgment of say the top management.

Lack of adequate feedback and data on these could lead to 'safe' or 'in-between' strategies which damage the ability of the firm to take a position in the market place.

The strategy building and communication tasks need to be understood together. For in a world based on communication, strategy building and execution both depend on (a) knowing where to build communication channels, (b) the ability to build them (c) their profitable use for inflow and outflow of desired information and response.

The ability of a firm to deliver better value than its competitors is determined not only by which activities the firm will perform and how it will configure individual activities but also-how activities relate to each other. Porter states that formulating a Strategy implies having three order of fits among activities of the firm. These “fits” are not mutually exclusive. The first order fit is simple consistency. This implies a simple consistency between each activity and overall strategy. The second-order fit occurs when activities are Reinforcing each other. The third-order fits goes beyond reinforcement to an Optimisation effort.

It is not difficult to see that 3 fits cannot occur without the 3Cs. Cooperation among the 'skills' of the 'staff is essential for simple consistency, reinforcement and optimisation. Focused concern helps choose the activities which will be consistent, reinforcing and optimise results in terms of greatest value added at least possible cost. The strategy or competitive response is nothing but the 3-fits working in harmony with each other to create differentiation, focus or cost advantage.

Three competitive response alternatives in terms of Positioning (identified by Porter) need to be considered here. The 3Cs are interlinked in the execution of these strategic potions – variety based, needs based and access based positioning. Firstly, cooperation among the firm resources and focused concern leads the firm to identify and bring together a distinctive set of activities that can best produce particular products or services.

This implies that the firms product or services range need not be produced identically and there may be better ways of producing a subset of them through unique activities or activities done in a unique way. This is variety based positioning. Secondly, where groups of consumers express their individuality through different need, it is possible to focus concern on needs of a particular segment or group. Cooperation or bringing together of the firm activities can be done in such a way to serve the individuality of these needs best.

This competitive response is called need-based positioning. The third alternative is a variant of need based positioning. This clarifies those instances where needs may be same but the customers need to be accessed or reached in different ways. This may be due to customer geography, customer scale or anything that requires a different set of activities. A focused concern on ways of accessing them and a cooperation or bringing together of the firm activities to offer value added to them can give the competitive response called Access-based positioning.

Building the strategy of differentiation or focus or deciding on one of the three positioning alternatives involves a clear identification of the target audience, marketing objectives and subsequently the communication objectives. These two important tasks of marketing communication are thus done at the early stage of competitive response planning and delivery. The 3 fits are designed to deliver to the target audience the firms competitive response in a manner that meets the marketing objective. Execution of this process requires using the 3C's.


Marketing Communication – Goals

The basic goals are no different from those for consumer products, ie, creating awareness, interest, favourable attitude etc., leading to placing the orders.

The differences lie in – (a) the audience being technically qualified, it is also trained to evaluate, (b) emotional approaches as in consumer advertising will not work. Solid reason is required. The size of the audience is small. However, industrial advertising is visually getting more appealing.

Inputs:

We first need to know the segmentation variables, which are:

saya. Descriptive – These include type of industry, geographic location, size etc.

ii. Operating – Refers to customer's technological sophistication levels, past usage status, capabilities in operating technical areas, purchasing practices – formal organisation, Internal structure of power, nature of organisational relationships, policies, criteria and applied and the like.

aku aku aku. Situational – Urgency of purchase, specific application of the product, size of order or part of the order etc.

iv. People – Characteristics of decision makers, including buyer-seller familiarity, motivation, individual percepts and risk management strategies.

v. Technology – High end, how complex

vi. Price – High or what

vii. Channel – Just the buyer? Agent? Dealer?

viii. Information- In industrial purchases, buyers, in particular the decision makers seek and get a lot of information and go through prolonged processes for evaluating and making decisions. The same people, who at home are no different from others, in the work place are serious minded experts.

Unlike in consumer advertising, they react favourably only where there is transparent honesty and even understatement. At home they are relaxed while at work they are serious minded and devoted to their task.

The Manager of Crucible Steels in the US has summarised some basic principles to be followed in communications, which include:

(1) Information must be factual.

(2) Marketing communications must feature –

Sebuah. Applications of the equipment in actual use.

b. Technical data in support of claims/features.

c. Biaya.

d. Availability – lead time needed.

e. Biaya.

f. Economy and ROI.

g. Offer of more technical information.

h. Services in the field.

saya. Demonstration (or visit to site where such equipment is in use or showing live over the company web, television monitors, and including tele-conferencing).

j. Name or address of person who would contact/who could be contacted for further information and progress.

Personal efforts need to be supported and integrated with other forms of communications. Such integrated communications have impact and results are favourable. In the US, John Morris did a study He interviewed over a hundred thousand technical people over 26 business/industrial product lines at over 30, 000 locations and sites. His conclusive findings were that integrated marketing communications were more effective than just personal contacts and visits.

Media to be used would include presentations using latest equipment by an expert team to the client and his team, tele-conferencing if needed, technical literature, profile of the organisation and may be giveaways.

Marketing communications for technical and industrial products are a very small percentage of sales values.


 

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