Pemasaran Ritel

Semua yang perlu Anda ketahui tentang pemasaran ritel. Ritel telah menjadi bagian intrinsik dari kehidupan kita sehari-hari sehingga sering dianggap remeh.

Negara-negara yang telah menikmati kemajuan ekonomi dan sosial terbesar adalah negara-negara dengan sektor ritel yang kuat. Mengapa ritel menjadi metode bisnis yang begitu populer?

Jawabannya terletak pada manfaat yang ditawarkan sektor ritel yang semarak - akses mudah ke berbagai produk, kebebasan memilih, dan layanan pelanggan tingkat tinggi.

Ritel mencakup penjualan melalui pos, Internet, kunjungan dari pintu ke pintu — setiap saluran yang dapat digunakan untuk mendekati konsumen.

Ketika produsen seperti Komputer Dell menjual langsung ke konsumen, mereka juga menjadi pengecer.

Pelajari tentang: - 1. Definisi Pemasaran Ritel 2. Ruang Lingkup 3. Karakteristik 4. Sifat 5. Jenis 6. Faktor yang Mempengaruhi 7. Kendala Infrastruktur 8. Struktur Berubah 9. Masalah Keamanan.

Pemasaran Ritel: Definisi, Cakupan, Karakteristik, Alam, Jenis, Faktor yang Mempengaruhi dan Masalah Keamanan


Konten:

  1. Definisi Pemasaran Ritel
  2. Lingkup Perdagangan
  3. Karakteristik Ritel
  4. Sifat Ritel
  5. Jenis-jenis Ritel
  6. Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Penjualan
  7. Kendala Infrastruktur dalam Perdagangan
  8. Mengubah Struktur Ritel
  9. Masalah Keamanan dalam Ritel

Pemasaran Ritel - Definisi: Menurut American Definition Committee dan William J. Stanton

Pemasaran ritel melibatkan pengelolaan aktivitas pemasaran di sektor ritel. Ritel adalah tempat pembelian dimaksudkan untuk dikonsumsi oleh pelanggan melalui penggunaan pribadi, keluarga atau rumah tangga, dan melibatkan - 1) toko ritel atau 2) ritel non-toko. Toko ritel termasuk departemen ritel campuran besar dan berbagai toko - hypermarket, toko swalayan dan supermarket, gudang diskon, toko khusus tradisional, dll.

Pengecer non-toko adalah penjualan barang atau jasa di luar batas fasilitas ritel melalui pemesanan melalui pos, pengecer di rumah, atau semakin meningkat melalui e-commerce. Pertumbuhan bisnis internet dan dot (dot) com telah meningkatkan penggunaan pemasaran langsung oleh pengecer, yang banyak di antaranya tidak memerlukan toko ritel.

Menurut laporan Komite Definisi, Amerika, "Ritel mencakup semua aktivitas yang terkait dengan penjualan kepada konsumen akhir".

Dalam kata-kata William J. Stanton, "Pengecer atau toko ritel adalah perusahaan bisnis yang menjual terutama kepada konsumen akhir untuk penggunaan non-bisnis".

Pengecer membeli produk untuk dijual kembali ke konsumen untuk mendapat untung. Pemesanan melalui surat dan penjual otomatis juga diklasifikasikan sebagai bagian dari ritel. Pengecer menyediakan - 1) tempat utilitas, dengan memiliki produk tempat konsumen ingin membelinya; 2) utilitas waktu, dengan berdagang pada saat-saat ketika konsumen ingin membeli; 3) memiliki utilitas kepemilikan, dengan memfasilitasi transfer kepemilikan atau penggunaan produk kepada konsumen; dan 4) bentuk utilitas, layanan ritel seperti penata rambut, binatu atau restoran, dll.

Toko eceran cenderung berkumpul bersama untuk menarik lalu lintas pelanggan yang cukup, di lokasi pusat kota tradisional (pusat bisnis), pusat perbelanjaan pinggiran kota, pinggir kota, di taman ritel atau di desa eceran.

Ritel mencakup semua kegiatan yang terlibat dalam penjualan barang atau jasa secara langsung ke konsumsi akhir untuk penggunaan non-bisnis pribadi mereka.

Kata 'ritel' berasal dari peritel ungkapan Perancis yang berarti memotong lagi. Toko eceran dipandang sebagai toko yang memotong sebagian kecil dari gumpalan besar barang. Dalam pengertian ini, 'ritel' hanyalah kebalikan dari 'grosir' yang terdiri dari penjualan dalam jumlah besar. Tetapi ritel juga merupakan mata rantai terakhir dalam rantai distribusi produk dari produsen ke konsumen.

Kata-kata 'pengecer' dan 'ritel' telah dengan tepat digambarkan oleh Stanton sebagai berikut:

Ritel mencakup semua aktivitas yang terkait langsung dengan penjualan barang atau jasa kepada konsumen akhir untuk penggunaan pribadi dan non-bisnis. Sementara sebagian besar ritel dilakukan melalui toko ritel, itu dapat dilakukan oleh lembaga mana pun. Sebuah pabrik yang menjual kosmetik dari pintu ke pintu terlibat dalam penjualan sebanyak petani yang menjual sayuran di kios pinggir jalan.

Perusahaan mana pun - produsen, toko grosir atau eceran - yang menjual sesuatu kepada konsumen akhir untuk penggunaan non-bisnis, terlepas dari bagaimana dijual (oleh orang, telepon, surat atau mesin penjual otomatis) atau di mana itu dijual (di toko atau di rumah konsumen) sedang melakukan penjualan eceran.


Pemasaran Ritel - Ruang Lingkup

Ritel memiliki cakupan yang sangat luas. Ini adalah salah satu industri dengan pertumbuhan tercepat di India dan menyediakan kesempatan kerja bagi banyak orang. Ritel menyediakan lapangan kerja dalam dua cara. Pertama, ini memberikan peluang kewirausahaan kepada orang-orang dan kedua, menyediakan lapangan kerja bagi begitu banyak orang yang tidak dapat memiliki toko ritel.

Dengan meningkatnya daya beli masyarakat dan jangkauan pedesaan para pengecer, ruang lingkup ritel meningkat berlipat ganda. Ruang lingkup ritel dapat dilihat dari dua sudut pandang. Satu dari pengecer, yaitu, perspektif pengusaha dan yang lainnya dari perspektif karyawan.

1. Perspektif Pengecer:

Dari perspektif pengecer, ritel dapat mencakup apa pun yang ingin dijual oleh pengecer. Mungkin barang atau jasa. Ini mungkin termasuk barang-barang seperti ponsel, komputer, elektronik, pakaian readymade, tekstil dan pakaian, perhiasan, buku, lukisan, obat-obatan, alat tulis, jam tangan, atau mungkin termasuk layanan seperti katering, keramahtamahan, rumah sakit dll.

Namun, dalam kasus-kasus tertentu izin dalam bentuk lisensi harus diperoleh dari pemerintah. Dalam kasus seperti itu, pengecer harus mematuhi semua formalitas hukum sebelum memulai bisnis. Misalnya, diperlukan lisensi untuk mengoperasikan toko apotek. Karenanya, pengecer harus memiliki kualifikasi yang disyaratkan dan karenanya dapat mengajukan permohonan lisensi.

2. Perspektif Karyawan:

Ritel telah memberikan peluang kerja yang luar biasa. Pengecer yang beroperasi pada tingkat kecil membutuhkan sejumlah kecil karyawan untuk membantu mereka dalam bisnis. Karyawan ini ditunjuk sebagai salesman, pembersih, kasir, dll oleh pengecer. Tetapi dengan meningkatnya ruang lingkup operasi dan pertumbuhan ritel, telah terjadi perubahan besar dalam industri.

Sekarang pengecer beroperasi di tingkat yang lebih besar, memiliki departemen yang terpisah untuk segala hal seperti keuangan, pemasaran, periklanan dan penjualan, pengembangan sumber daya manusia, dll. Oleh karena itu, pengecer memberikan peluang besar kepada karyawan.

Berikut ini adalah area di mana ruang lingkup ritel dapat dilihat dari sudut pandang karyawan:

saya. Departemen pembelian:

Bagian pembelian bertanggung jawab untuk melakukan semua pembelian untuk bisnis. Ini termasuk pemilihan barang dagangan untuk dijual kepada pelanggan, kisaran harga mereka, pemilihan vendor dari siapa pembelian harus dilakukan, dll.

Departemen ini membutuhkan upaya yang sangat besar dan mencakup banyak pekerjaan kertas, percakapan telepon dan bepergian. Karyawan yang bekerja dengan departemen ini harus memiliki pengetahuan yang baik tentang industri dan vendor. Mereka harus dapat mengambil keputusan cepat.

ii. Departemen Keuangan:

Keuangan adalah darah kehidupan organisasi mana pun. Departemen keuangan melakukan fungsi-fungsi seperti membuat dan menyusun catatan keuangan, alokasi keuangan untuk berbagai departemen, manajemen keuangan, pengaturan keuangan, mengendalikan arus kas, mengelola perbankan serta investasi, memutuskan alokasi kredit, dll. Terkadang audit ritel juga dapat dilakukan oleh departemen keuangan.

aku aku aku. Pemasaran dan Penjualan:

Departemen pemasaran mencakup berbagai kegiatan seperti promosi penjualan, periklanan, hubungan masyarakat, dll. Kegiatan ini sangat penting dari sudut pandang menjangkau pelanggan. Departemen pemasaran bertanggung jawab untuk melakukan riset pasar yang luas dan memahami kebutuhan pelanggan.

Orang-orang yang diperlukan di departemen pemasaran harus fasih, memiliki pengetahuan yang tepat tentang produk, apa pun yang mereka harus dapat meyakinkan pelanggan untuk membeli produk. Mereka juga harus mampu memahami kebutuhan pelanggan dan bertindak sesuai dengan itu.

iv. Toko:

Departemen toko bertanggung jawab untuk menyimpan barang. Manajer toko harus memastikan bahwa setiap kali persediaan dijaga pada tingkat yang tepat sehingga tidak ada kekurangan barang. Pada saat yang sama, departemen harus memastikan bahwa terlalu banyak inventaris dapat menyebabkan masalah penyimpanan, keusangan, keausan, dll. Jadi manajer toko harus selalu menyimpan catatan terbaru inventaris dan memastikan pasokan bahan baku tidak terputus.

v. Sumber Daya Manusia:

Departemen sumber daya manusia bertanggung jawab atas perekrutan, seleksi, pelatihan, induksi dll dari karyawan. Sumber daya manusia adalah industri sentris manusia. Orang-orang yang diperlukan di departemen ini harus cukup mampu memahami persyaratan orang-orang dalam organisasi dan harus mampu menghentikan karyawan yang efisien dari meninggalkan organisasi.

vi. Teknologi dalam Ritel:

Industri ritel di India berada pada tahap matang dan merupakan pengguna yang sangat percaya diri atau teknologi informasi. Industri ini menggunakan teknologi seperti Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) yang digunakan untuk mentransfer informasi secara elektronik melalui komputer. Manajemen Basis Data, Gudang Data, dan Penambangan Data adalah teknik yang digunakan untuk mengumpulkan informasi tentang pelanggan dan menyimpannya untuk penggunaan di masa mendatang.

Penambangan Data membantu dalam manajemen hubungan pelanggan. Radio Frequency Identification System (RFID) digunakan untuk manajemen rantai pasokan. Konsep e-tailing terus mendapatkan dasar dalam ritel. Ini termasuk penggunaan internet untuk menjual barang.

vii. Manajemen rantai persediaan:

Manajemen Rantai Pasokan berarti mengelola pasokan bahan, layanan, dan informasi di sepanjang rantai pasokan. Mengelola sumber daya secara efisien dan efektif meningkatkan keuntungan bisnis. Rantai pasokan dikelola dengan menggunakan sistem informasi.

Jadi ada banyak area di mana ritel dapat menyediakan lapangan kerja bagi masyarakat. Oleh karena itu dapat disimpulkan bahwa ruang lingkup ritel sangat luas. Seseorang dapat melibatkan dirinya sebagai wirausahawan atau dapat bergabung dengan sektor ini sebagai karyawan tergantung pada keterampilan dan keuangannya, dll.


Pemasaran Ritel - Karakteristik

Ritel memiliki sejumlah karakteristik yang spesifik untuknya dan menjadikannya aktivitas yang dibedakan dalam proses pemasaran. Ritel adalah bagian dari rantai nilai dan proses pemasaran tidak lengkap kecuali ritel terjadi. Lokasi adalah faktor terpenting dalam bisnis ritel karena harus bersentuhan langsung dengan banyak konsumen yang tersebar di wilayah tersebut.

Jumlah unit ritel cukup besar karena harus memastikan aksesibilitas konsumen di sekitar mereka. Jumlahnya tergantung pada ukuran dan intensitas populasi bersama dengan topografi daerah tersebut. Identifikasi lokasi yang tepat sulit dan mendirikan toko adalah bisnis mahal.

Keputusan lokasi sangat tergantung dari sudut pandang konsumen yang bertentangan dengan ekonomi dan faktor-faktor rasional lainnya. Jumlah dan ukuran toko ritel ditentukan oleh kebutuhan dan kenyamanan posisi pelanggan, potensi permintaan produk, pasokan barang dagangan dan posisi serta citra unit ritel.

Kontak langsung dengan pelanggan adalah fitur penting dari ritel. Pengecer memiliki interaksi langsung dengan pelanggan utama produk. Produsen produk mungkin berlokasi jauh bahkan di negara lain tetapi pengecer harus dekat dengan pelanggan dengan cara apa pun.

Pengecer berada dalam kontak langsung dengan pelanggan dan harus berkomunikasi dengannya. Oleh karena itu faktor budaya, bahasa, nada, gaya dan cara komunikasi harus dirancang dengan pertimbangan pelanggan. Dengan demikian, pengecer melayani pelanggan dan produsen karena ia adalah promotor dan pengiklan produk dan dapat memengaruhi total penjualan dengan cara yang besar.

Kegiatan promosi dilakukan oleh pengecer ke sejumlah besar pelanggan. Terlepas dari berbagai langkah promosi, iklan, propaganda dan publisitas, sejumlah besar pelanggan tidak menyadari dan tidak terpengaruh oleh produk. Pada akhirnya mereka dipandu oleh pengecer yang memberikan informasi tentang fitur dan kualitas produk, meyakinkan mereka dan membujuk mereka untuk membeli produk tertentu.

Sejumlah pelanggan dipengaruhi oleh tampilan, presentasi, poster di toko pengecer, pada saat mereka mengunjungi toko toko karena mereka tidak memiliki daftar belanja tetap, preferensi merek tetap, kebutuhan yang ditentukan sebelumnya. Pembelian dalam sejumlah kasus bersifat impulsif, tidak terencana, dan situasional.

Di sini, pajangan, tata letak toko, kategorisasi dan bermacam-macam, visibilitas dan taktik pemasaran dari penjual memainkan peran penting terutama dalam produk yang dibeli dalam jumlah kecil, harga rendah dan cepat habis. Produk-produk fashion dijual dengan cara yang serupa dengan cara yang besar. Peran pengecer sangat penting di sini.

Jumlah rata-rata penjualan produk relatif kecil dibandingkan dengan grosir atau produsen. Sebagian besar produk penjualan pengecer untuk konsumsi rumah tangga. Banyak produk dibeli secara harian, mingguan atau bulanan. Dengan demikian jumlah transaksi untuk pengecer tinggi dengan volume rendah. Ini adalah tugas yang luar biasa karena setiap hari sejumlah besar pelanggan harus ditangani oleh pengecer dan sejumlah produk dijual. Pengecer harus menjaga persediaan berbagai produk yang masuk akal dan manajemen persediaan sangat penting di sini.

Sejumlah kegiatan terlibat dalam ritel. Selain perilaku penjual, pengemasan, layanan tepat waktu, verifikasi kredit, pembungkus kado, pengiriman yang nyaman, fasilitas pembelian kembali, persiapan untuk berubah, berbagai ketentuan jaminan dan waran terlibat dalam ritel. Orientasi pelanggan adalah faktor penting dalam ritel.

Layanan pengecer berkali-kali lebih penting daripada merek, kualitas dan loyalitas produk. Ini adalah kesetiaan dan kepercayaan dari pengecer yang lebih penting. Dunia ritel yang berkembang memiliki banyak fitur, di mana raksasa dagang tidak lagi dibatasi oleh batasan domestik.

Menurut laporan tahun 2003, Global Powers of Retailing oleh majalah STORES dan Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, empat tahun lalu lebih dari setengah dari 200 pengecer top di dunia beroperasi hanya di satu negara. Jumlah itu sejak itu turun menjadi 44 dan pada 2008 turun menjadi 30.


Pemasaran Ritel - Alam: Bagian Pemasaran, Sentris Pelanggan, Multi-Dimensi, Memvariasikan Lokasi Geografis, Transformasional, dan Beberapa Lagi

1. Bagian Pemasaran:

Ritel adalah bagian dari kegiatan pemasaran. Ini membantu produk untuk mencapai pelanggan akhir. Ini juga tujuan pemasaran. Dengan demikian ritel memfasilitasi kegiatan pemasaran dengan menargetkan berbagai pelanggan.

2. Sentris Pelanggan:

Seluruh konsep ritel berputar di sekitar pelanggan. Karena meningkatnya persaingan, semua pengecer ingin menarik pelanggan. Pengecer menggunakan berbagai metode promosi penjualan seperti diskon, dll., Untuk memikat pelanggan.

3. Multi-Dimensi:

Ritel memiliki banyak dimensi. Mereka bervariasi dari toko dan kios kirana lokal hingga mal super yang menjual berbagai produk bermerek. Saat ini ada peningkatan berlipat ganda dalam penggunaan internet untuk membeli dan menjual barang.

4. Memvariasikan Lokasi Geografis:

Wilayah geografis jangkauan pengecer sangat bervariasi. Ini mungkin berbeda dari pasar area lokal yang menjual barang ke pelanggan lokal hanya ke mal super yang memiliki banyak pelanggan dari berbagai daerah dan bahkan berbagai kota. Hari-hari ini karena meningkatnya penggunaan internet, pengecer memiliki pelanggan dari seluruh negeri dan bahkan dari luar negeri.

5. Transformasional:

Sejak awal ritel sebagai bisnis penuh, telah terjadi transformasi besar di dalamnya. Transformasi ini umumnya dalam bentuk tujuan ritel (yang sebelumnya didorong oleh keuntungan, sekarang berfokus pada pelanggan), metode ritel (dari toko ritel sederhana sebelumnya ke mal multi merek), area yang dicakup (area kecil sebelumnya sekarang seluruh negara atau bahkan negara lain ), pelanggan (dari pelanggan lokal sederhana hingga pelanggan dari semua lapisan masyarakat) dll.

6. Proses Manajemen Kompleks:

Ritel sepertinya proses yang sederhana. Tetapi pada kenyataannya itu adalah proses manajemen yang kompleks. Pengecer melibatkan toko ritel yang berlokasi di tempat-tempat yang nyaman, mengatur barang sesuai dengan band harga yang berbeda, menjual barang dalam jumlah yang nyaman bagi pelanggan, layanan purna jual yang tepat dan berbagai langkah promosi penjualan untuk menarik pelanggan. Setelah itu, harus ada juga program Customer Relationship Management (CRM) yang tepat untuk menjaga hubungan panjang yang sehat dengan pelanggan.

7. Bermacam-macam Produk dan Layanan:

Ritel melibatkan kombinasi barang dan jasa. Sama sekali tidak mungkin bagi pengecer untuk bertahan hidup di dunia saat ini dengan hanya menawarkan satu produk. Agar berhasil, pengecer perlu menawarkan berbagai macam barang dan jasa. Misalnya, seorang tukang roti tidak dapat bertahan hidup hanya dengan menjual beberapa kue dan biskuit. Untuk bertahan hidup di pasar yang kompetitif, pertama, seorang tukang roti membutuhkan lingkungan yang tepat yang disebut suasana yang menyenangkan mata pelanggan.

Kedua, ia membutuhkan beragam kue dan biskuit serta produk lainnya. Bersamaan dengan itu ia juga perlu menyimpan beberapa makanan manis yang kemungkinan besar akan dibeli orang bersama dengan produk-produk utama seperti coklat, kue, keripik, minuman dingin, roti, burger, hot dog, dll.

Terlepas dari barang-barang ini orang mungkin mengharapkan dia untuk menyimpan beberapa barang seperti lilin ulang tahun dan ulang tahun, popper pesta, barang-barang dekorasi dll. Setelah produk-produk ini, orang juga dapat mengharapkan dia untuk mengambil pesanan melalui telepon dan mengirimkan barang-barang yang dibeli ke rumah. Dengan demikian dapat dengan mudah dikatakan bahwa ritel adalah berbagai macam barang dan jasa.

8. Mempelajari Pola Permintaan:

Seorang pengecer diminta untuk mempelajari pola permintaan saat ini dari produk yang ditawarkan olehnya di pasar. Dengan mempelajari pola permintaan, ia dapat memastikan jumlah barang yang ia butuhkan untuk membeli dalam jumlah besar dari grosir. Jika dia membeli barang dalam jumlah besar tanpa mempelajari pola permintaan, dia mungkin harus menghadapi risiko barang usang. Selain itu, stok besar membutuhkan area yang luas untuk penyimpanan. Semua ini harus diatur oleh pengecer.

9. Penciptaan Utilitas:

Pengecer membantu dalam menciptakan utilitas waktu dan tempat. Utilitas waktu dibuat ketika barang disediakan pada waktu tertentu. Pengecer menciptakan utilitas waktu dengan menyimpan barang-barang dengan dirinya sendiri dan membuatnya tersedia bagi pelanggan saat dan ketika dibutuhkan. Utilitas tempat berarti membuat barang tersedia di tempat yang berbeda jauh dari tempat pembuatan. Pengecer membuat barang tersedia untuk pelanggan di berbagai lokasi yang jauh dari lokasi pabrik mereka.

10. Branding dan Pelabelan Pribadi:

Dorongan dalam aktivitas ritel mengakibatkan terciptanya merek pribadi. Branding atau pelabelan pribadi berarti membeli produk langsung dari pabrikan dan memberi mereka merek sendiri oleh pengecer. Dengan peningkatan dalam ritel telah terjadi peningkatan di toko-toko ritel eksklusif yang menjual produk-produk merek tertentu saja.

Misalnya, Big Bazaar, Food Bazaar of Future Group; Tren Reliance, Reliance Footprints, Reliance Fresh, dll., Adalah beberapa divisi dari Reliance Retail Ltd. yang merupakan anak perusahaan dari Reliance Industries. Menurut sebuah studi Neilson, makanan terus mendominasi pasar label swasta di 76 persen dari total penjualan. Bahan pangan kemasan mendominasi pasar ini dengan sekitar 53 persen pangsa total penjualan.

Banyak pengecer telah menyesuaikan produk mereka sesuai dengan selera lokal dan preferensi massa. Misalnya, melihat permintaan besar air lemon dan limun di massa India, PepsiCo telah mengembangkan Nimbooz pada 7up.

11. Berbagai Layanan Lainnya:

Ritel juga mencakup berbagai layanan lainnya.

Layanan ini meliputi:

(i) Memberikan Keuangan kepada Pelanggan:

Banyak orang tidak mampu membeli produk mahal dengan membayar jumlah sekaligus. Dengan tidak adanya keuangan, orang-orang ini harus tetap tidak menggunakan hal-hal seperti itu. Pengecer mengatasi masalah ini dengan memberikan persyaratan keuangan yang mudah seperti pembayaran tanpa bunga kepada pelanggan mereka. Dengan melakukan itu, mereka meningkatkan basis pelanggan mereka. Contoh, menyediakan dana untuk lemari es, mobil, ponsel, furnitur, dll.

(ii) Menyediakan Layanan Purna Jual:

Pengecer juga menyediakan berbagai layanan purna jual seperti pengiriman barang di rumah secara gratis, pembungkus kado gratis, dll.

(iii) Memasang Produk:

Pengecer membantu pelanggan mereka dalam memasang barang yang telah mereka beli. Untuk tujuan ini mereka membawa teknisi dan spesialis. Contoh, memasang cerobong listrik di tempat pelanggan.

(iv) Tampilan dan Demonstrasi:

Tampilan dan demonstrasi barang juga mempengaruhi keputusan pembeli. Dengan demikian, pengecer secara khusus menampilkan dan mendemonstrasikan produk mereka sesuai dengan pelanggan. Contohnya, mendekorasi secara khusus sesuai berbagai festival untuk menarik minat pelanggan.

Dengan demikian dapat dikatakan bahwa ritel adalah aktivitas transformasional yang kompleks, multi-dimensi, melibatkan berbagai kegiatan seperti menargetkan pelanggan, mempelajari pola permintaan mereka, membagi produk menjadi segmen-segmen kecil, menarik pelanggan dengan memberikan berbagai diskon, poin penukaran, loyalitas bonus, kupon, hadiah gratis, dll.

Selain itu, ritel tidak berakhir dengan penjualan barang. Ini juga mencakup berbagai layanan purna jual seperti memberikan pembiayaan kepada pelanggan, dll. Dengan demikian, sangat penting untuk memahami sifat pasar ritel.


Pemasaran Ritel - 3 Jenis Utama: Berbasis Toko, Berbasis Non-Toko dan Layanan Ritel

Jenis # 1. Eceran Berbasis Toko :

Model ritel berbasis toko berarti ada tempat di mana aktivitas ritel dilakukan secara fisik. Ini berarti ada tempat fisik di mana kegiatan tersebut dilakukan.

Ritel berbasis toko dapat dibagi lagi menjadi dua bagian:

(1) Atas Dasar Kepemilikan; dan

(2) Atas Dasar Barang Yang Ditawarkan.

(1) Atas Dasar Kepemilikan:

(i) Pengecer Tradisional:

Ini adalah bentuk ritel tertua yang ada di ekonomi mana pun. Ini telah menyediakan basis untuk semua format ritel lainnya untuk dikembangkan. Pengecer tradisional memiliki satu gerai ritel. Dia umumnya mengkhususkan diri dalam satu jenis barang. Bisnis dapat bervariasi dari toko kirana lokal ke toko paanwala, dari toko pakaian jadi ke bisnis perhiasan.

Bisnis ini dimiliki dan dikelola oleh pemiliknya sendiri atau sekelompok anggota keluarga. Bisnis ini biasanya diturunkan dari satu generasi ke generasi lainnya. Secara umum, bisnis-bisnis ini menikmati itikad baik dan memiliki kontak pribadi dengan para pelanggan. Sebaliknya, bisnis ini tidak dapat mengambil keuntungan dari produksi massal dan menikmati skala ekonomi. Mereka sangat populer dikenal sebagai 'pagi dan toko pop'.

(ii) Toko Rantai:

Rantai toko ditandai dengan nama merek yang sama dan manajemen yang sama, yaitu, ada kepemilikan bersama atas satu atau lebih gerai ritel. Toko-toko ini sama dalam hal barang yang ditawarkan untuk dijual, prospek toko, harga dan suasana. Mereka menikmati manfaat dari promosi penjualan umum dan kampanye iklan.

(iii) Waralaba:

Ini adalah kontrak antara dua pihak, pemilik waralaba dan pemilik waralaba, di mana pemilik waralaba memungkinkan pemegang waralaba untuk menggunakan produk, layanan, nama merek atau merek dagangnya untuk menjalankan bisnis, dengan imbalan sejumlah biaya atau kompensasi sebagaimana ditentukan dalam perjanjian. Franchisee diberikan area geografis tertentu untuk jangka waktu yang telah ditentukan sebelumnya.

(iv) Koperasi Konsumen:

Itu dimiliki dan dikelola oleh sekelompok pelanggan pada umumnya yang tidak puas dengan penawaran produk. Motif dasar dari koperasi konsumen tersebut adalah saling menguntungkan. Gerai ritel ini memiliki kemampuan pertumbuhan yang terbatas karena jumlah yang diinvestasikan di dalamnya sangat terbatas. Sekelompok pelanggan yang mengelola outlet ini juga berkontribusi terhadap modalnya.

(v) Departemen Sewa:

Departemen yang disewa berarti, ketika satu perusahaan atau pengecer menjalankan bisnis di dalam gedung perusahaan atau pengecer lain. Sangat populer konsep ini dikenal sebagai toko di dalam toko.

Pemilik toko menyewakan atau menyewakan sebagian tokonya kepada orang lain untuk mendapat uang. Ini adalah praktik yang sangat umum untuk penghitung perhiasan, optik, kosmetik, dan parfum. Keuntungan dari departemen sewaan tersebut adalah bahwa orang yang ingin menjual produknya dapat melakukannya tanpa harus mengatur sewa toko yang sangat mahal.

(2) Atas Dasar Barang Yang Ditawarkan :

(i) Toko Serba Ada:

Toko-toko ini menyediakan berbagai barang sehari-hari bagi pelanggan seperti bahan makanan, makanan ringan siap saji, susu, telur, roti, biskuit, koran, dll. Secara umum lokasi toko serba ada sedemikian rupa sehingga nyaman untuk dijangkau oleh pelanggan. Beberapa toko swalayan beroperasi selama dua puluh empat jam juga. 7-Eleven adalah contoh terkenal dari toko serba ada.

(ii) Toko Khusus:

Toko khusus menawarkan jenis produk tertentu kepada pelanggan. Mereka adalah toko eksklusif yang menawarkan jenis produk tertentu dalam lini produk tertentu tetapi dalam lini produk yang sama ada berbagai macam barang yang ditawarkan. Toko khusus yang cocok untuk pelanggan yang memiliki semacam preferensi merek. Toko khusus fokus pada perhiasan, pakaian, furnitur, elektronik, dll.

(iii) Toko Departemen:

Toko serba ada adalah perusahaan ritel yang menyediakan berbagai produk kepada pelanggan. Toko ini dibagi menjadi beberapa departemen seperti perawatan pribadi dan kosmetik, buku dan alat tulis, barang-barang peralatan rumah tangga, elektronik, dll. Toko departemen menyediakan berbagai macam barang kepada pelanggan di bawah satu atap. Toko-toko ini umumnya berukuran besar dan dimiliki oleh rantai besar. Contohnya adalah Stop Pembeli, Ebony, dll.

(iv) Pengecer Harga Off:

Pengecer ini menyediakan barang berkualitas tinggi dengan harga murah. Jenis barang ketika dijual oleh produsen sendiri langsung ke pelanggan dikenal sebagai pabrik atau outlet detik. Mereka menjual barang bekas, produk luar musim dengan harga murah. Barang-barang terkadang memiliki cacat kecil atau mungkin berukuran aneh (sangat besar atau sangat kecil). Contoh - Outlet Factory Bata, Factory Outlet Monte Carlo, Outlet Factory Nike, dll.

(v) Ruang Pamer Katalog:

Showroom katalog adalah tempat di mana barang tidak ditampilkan. Ada berbagai katalog yang disimpan untuk produk. Pelanggan memilih produk dari katalog dan kemudian mengisi formulir pemesanan dan menyimpannya di konter penjualan. Di konter penjualan, petugas penjualan mengatur agar produk dibawa dari gudang untuk diperiksa dan dibeli.

Ini adalah praktik yang sangat umum untuk perhiasan, barang elektronik (barang peralatan rumah tangga seperti mesin cuci, televisi, AC, dll.). Saat ini banyak pakaian desainer juga dijual melalui ruang pamer katalog.

(vi) Pasar Super:

Super market adalah toko swalayan besar yang menyediakan berbagai produk seperti bahan makanan, makanan dan beberapa barang non-makanan seperti barang-barang rumah tangga, barang-barang yang berhubungan dengan kesehatan dan kecantikan, dll. Umumnya pasar super menyediakan produk-produk murah untuk pelanggan. Contoh- Easy Day, Nilgiris, Reliance / Fresh, dll.

(vii) Pasar Hiper:

Pasar hiper adalah kombinasi dari toko serba ada dan pasar super. Dengan demikian hyper market menawarkan berbagai macam barang dan jasa mulai dari barang-barang stasioner hingga bahan makanan, dari peralatan dapur hingga peralatan elektronik, dari furnitur hingga perhiasan, dll. Oleh karena itu, ini menyediakan toko serba ada untuk para pelanggan.

Pasar hiper biasanya menawarkan diskon besar kepada pelanggan. Struktur hypermarket menyerupai gudang besar dan memiliki banyak tempat parkir. Contoh- Big Bazaar, Harga Terbaik, Savemax, Hyper City, Vishal Mega Mart, WAL-Mart, dll.

(viii) Pusat Perbelanjaan:

Sebuah pusat perbelanjaan adalah tempat usaha ritel di mana terdapat kombinasi toko-toko bermerek, pusat makanan, zona hiburan termasuk zona permainan, film dan fasilitas parkir. Ini adalah konsep ritel modern di mana pemilik toko membayar sewa atau sewa kepada pengembang mal. Mereka menempati tempat di mal sebagai penyewa. Contoh mal adalah Ambience Mall, Gurgaon, Elante Mall, Chandigarh, dll.

(xi) Kios:

Kios adalah toko kecil yang biasanya terlihat di mal, bandara, stasiun kereta api, tempat bus, dll. Mereka menawarkan beberapa layanan khusus atau barang kepada pelanggan. Kios dapat berupa satu sisi atau dua sisi terbuka. Di beberapa tempat, ada mesin penjual otomatis, yang tidak dioperasikan oleh manusia. Orang-orang hanya perlu memasukkan uang ke dalam mesin dan meminta barang yang diinginkan. Item keluar dari mesin seperti uang keluar dari ATM.

(x) Toko Diskon:

Toko diskon adalah perusahaan ritel yang menyediakan barang kepada pelanggan dengan harga diskon. Umumnya barang dagangan yang ditawarkan oleh toko-toko ini luas tetapi toko-toko ini menyediakan layanan terbatas kepada pelanggan. Mereka beroperasi sebagai pengecer harga rendah.

Ketik # 2 . Pengecer Berbasis Non-Toko :

Pengecer berbasis non toko berarti format ritel yang tidak terbatas pada dinding area tertentu. Sebaliknya, karena ritel berbasis non-toko perusahaan dapat memperluas basis pelanggan mereka.

Ritel non-toko lebih lanjut dapat dibagi menjadi dua bagian:

Sebuah. Penjualan langsung:

Penjualan Langsung adalah format ritel yang sesuai dengan namanya adalah bentuk penjualan yang melibatkan kontak pribadi dengan pelanggan.

Selanjutnya dapat dibagi menjadi tiga jenis:

(i) Rencana pesta di mana penjual mengundang teman, tetangga, dan kenalan lainnya ke rumahnya untuk pesta dan memajang barang-barang di sana. Orang-orang melihat barang-barang yang dipajang dan membelinya,

(ii) Jaringan multi-level di mana ada jaringan orang yang selanjutnya menunjuk orang lain untuk bekerja dengannya untuk distribusi barang untuk komisi. Banyak perusahaan penjualan kosmetik sebagian besar menggunakan jaringan multi-level ini untuk menjual produk mereka, dan

(iii) Penjualan dari pintu ke pintu di mana penjual dikirim dari pintu ke pintu untuk menjual barang kepada orang-orang. Terkadang bentuk penjualan ini menjadi bagian dari kurikulum akademik dan membantu melatih siswa untuk menjual produk mereka.

Terutama artikel seperti buku, barang-barang rumah tangga, barang-barang dapur, kosmetik, perhiasan imitasi dijual dengan metode ini. Tupperware dan Amway menggunakan metode ini untuk menjual produk mereka.

b. Penjualan Jarak:

Penjualan jarak jauh melibatkan penggunaan perdagangan elektronik yang sangat dikenal sebagai e-commerce untuk menjual barang kepada pelanggan. Hari-hari ini karena kehidupan orang-orang yang sibuk, bentuk ritel ini semakin meningkat. The people are informed about the product either through e-mail or telephones, or through internet sites or television.

Type # 3 . Services Retailing :

Services retailing means selling various kinds of services to the customers such as banking, insurance, taxies, hospitality services, etc. The retailers of these services these days are increasingly making use of internet to reach the customers and broaden their customer base.

A customer in any part of the country or even in any part of the world may book his taxi in advance. A person sitting at home can book movie tickets and even select his seat by using internet. Banks and insurance companies are making use of internet technology to offer more innovative products to their customers.

Organised and Unorganised Retailing :

In the recent years the debate of organised as well as unorganised retailing has gained ground in India. This debate is in relation to the introduction of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in retailing. To understand all this, it is important to understand the concept of organised as well as unorganised retailing.

saya. Organised Retailing :

In the past few years the concept of organised retailing has also gained ground in India. It is a sector which has tremendous growth potential due to the favourable business environment and government policies. The organised retail includes big shopping malls, big complexes offering huge variety of branded goods and services. They provide quality products and try to provide value for money and make shopping a memorable experience.

This type of retailing is known as organised retailing due to the fact that the trading activities in this sector are registered under some or the other act such as Sales Tax Act, etc. Due to this reason, the activities are guided by the provisions of the act under which a particular business is registered.

The scope of organised retailing is much wider as compared to unorganised retailing. It is more modern as well as customer centric in its approach. Such type of retail uses advanced technology for Management Information System (MIS), Supply Chain Management (SCM), as well as Customer Relationship Management (CRM).

ii. Unorganised Retailing :

As the name suggests the unorganised retailing is the kind of retailing that was traditionally prevalent in India. It is the kind of retailing which does not follow any statute or legal provisions and hence is not under the compulsion to maintain proper accounts.

The retailers in organised retailing are small business operators who lack technical and accounting standardisation. Generally the products sold by these retailers are unbranded and the materials are acquired locally by using personal contacts.

The types of retailers operating in unorganised sector are local kirana shops, pavement vendors, mobile vendors, etc. Therefore the products and services may be sold at fixed locations or the vendor may be mobile. The examples of the retailers operating in an unorganised sector are the local cloth merchants, the vegetable vendors, the grocers, the vendors selling clothes, toys, at the pavements, etc.

The maximum of the retailing business in India traditionally came from unorganised sector. Presently also the organised sector continues to dominate the retail landscape in India primarily in the small cities and towns.

The unorganised retailing provides employment to many people in the form of salesmen, helpers, etc. But as compared to the organised retailing, the employment generation capacity of the unorganised sector is much less. Moreover, the products and the services being sold by them may not be comparable to international products and services.


Retail Marketing – Factors Affecting: Store Location, Store Ambience, Variety, Store Layout, Demographic Factors, Add on Services, Behaviour with Customer and Few Others

A variety of factors have a bearing on the retail businesses. These factors irrespective of the geographical area affect the retailing business to a great extent.

Ini adalah:

Factor # 1. Store Location:

The location of the retail store has a great degree of influence on the success of the business. The retail store located in a busy market has much more chances of success than the ones located in isolated places. Since selection of the store is a kind of permanent and irreversible decision, great care must be taken while selecting it.

Factor # 2. Store Ambience:

Ambience means the atmosphere of a place. The ambience of the retail store must be such that it attracts the customers and soothes them. Generally the chain stores have same ambience irrespective of their locations.

Factor # 3. Variety:

The customer to a large extent is attracted by the variety of the articles kept in the retail store. Every customer expects a variety of goods of latest fashion from the retailer. The retail store having a large variety of articles is likely to attract a large number of customers.

Factor # 4. Store Layout:

The store layout means the management of the articles in the store by the retailer. It includes arranging of the goods properly, keeping the same goods at one place, keeping the store neat and tidy with clean surroundings, arranging for proper display of goods in show windows and shelves, etc.

The store layout is an impression of the store on the customer and it impacts the customers' decision to enter the store. It also impacts the productivity of the employees positively since they are very clear about the location of the articles and hence find no difficulty in showing them to the customers. Thus a store which is properly managed attracts customers.

Factor # 5. Demographic Factors:

There are a number of demographic factors which affect the retail business.

Ini adalah:

(i) Consumption habits of the people- The consumption habits of the prospective customers must be studied properly before starting the retail business.

(ii) Family structure- The family structure also impacts the retail business. The family structure may be joint or nuclear.

(iii) Number of working women – The number of working women also affects the retail business. If the number of working women is more, they are likely to spend more than the housewives and vice versa.

(iv) Consumption habits – The consumption habits of the people affect the buying decisions of the people. If people are in a habit of buying branded goods, then a retail store selling a variety of branded products is more likely to succeed.

Factor # 6. Add on Services:

Add on services imply the extra services provided by the retailer to the customers in addition to the normal goods being offered for sale. These extra services may be in form of financing facilities on articles being purchased, free home delivery services, after sale services, free gift wrapping, loyalty programmes, etc.

Factor # 7. Behavior with Customers:

The behaviour of the retailer and his employees with the customers also affect their sales volume. A person who is very courteous towards his customers and is keen to listen to them is more likely to attract the customers than others.

Factor # 8. Socio Cultural Environment:

The socio cultural environment of any area affects the retail business. The retail business needs to follow the socio cultural and the moral values of the people in the area where it operates. Thus all these factors must be considered properly for the success of the retail business.


Retail Marketing – Infrastructure Constraint: Logistic Problems, Weak Supply Chain, Ever Increasing Fuel Price, Lack of Understanding and a Few Others

Inspite of reiteration of special focus on infrastructure in the country by policy makers, still the country is lagging much behind to developed countries. Currently, highway network of less than 2% bears 40% of the traffic. The State highway network is of limited length. The completion of “Golden quadrilateral” is still a distant goal Transport connectivity is a serious problem.

saya. Logistic Problems :

Retailing has always facing this problem even in advanced countries. The lack of distribution channels linking towns other than Class I is a big constraint. Absence of linkage with local logistics centres is a major bottleneck. Due to increased rip-off the operational cost increases. The CMIE estimated that the total cost of logistics in the country is somewhere between 10% and 12% of the GDP.

ii. Weak Supply Chain:

Information Technology (IT) can help achieve great benefits in terms of the agility and visibility of the information flow. But increased systematic coordination across company borders alleges the greatest demand for the IT to be successful.

The problem is very crucial in India. India has 97% unorganized retail market.

Unorganized business means that the demand and supply is made on an ad-hoc basis by each player of the supply chain thereby creating uncertainties in demand. Almost 50% of the fruits and vegetables produced in India are lost in the supply chain.

In tonnage terms, this is almost the amount that is consumed in Great Britain. However, systematic implementation of Information Technology to improve the inventory management can make a very big difference in the present time.

Maintaining the desired level of inventory is the most critical task before a retailer. The diversity of Indian customers, cultural variations and lack of distributional channels are responsible for rise in cost of inventory. Most of the retailers in India have inventory turns level in the range of 4-10% turns and stock out level between 5% and 10% as against the average inventory turns level of 18% and stock out level of less than 5% in US. Globally supply chains are fairly mature and efficient. This gives the retailer opportunity to improve profit margins without charging high price.

aku aku aku. Ever Increasing Fuel Prices:

The frequent hike in fuel prices affect the price of retail goods since good transport is major factor in the pricing process. The wide geographical area of the country multiplier the effect of hikes in fuel prices. The organized retail is affected adversely because of this.

iv. Lack of Understanding :

In India, the supply chain is made up of the Supplier, Wholesaler, Distributor, Retailer and Consumer. The Supplier supplies the merchandise as per the orders received/ perceived. The Supplier also does the function of warehousing and dispatching of the finished products.

Distributors provides distribution service by processing, executing the orders and providing after-sales services. Clearing and Forwarding Agents (C&F) perform all the distribution functions. Distributors also function like C&F agents, with the only exception that they raise their own invoice and collect the dues.

It is common that the supply chain is plagued with buffer inventories adding to the cost IT infrastructure has developed rapidly, and it has the potential to bring the agility and visibility in the supply chain by passing on the information quickly between different players. Strategic implementation of IT can improve (though not eliminate) the demand and supply imbalance.

v . Lack of Supplier Integration :

In India, the retailers and suppliers operate distinctly without any integration. The retailers still are collecting information from their suppliers manually whereas in developed countries there is system of Vendor Managed Inventory. In this system, suppliers have access to the sales data of the retailers and thereby they plan automatic replenishments responding to the stocks available with the retailers. A Survey by KPMG confirmed that 100% retailers exchange such information manually.

vi. Lack of Vertical Co-Operation:

Contemporary retail business is chain oriented; therefore synchronization of demand and supply becomes a core question. The problems with the traditional vertical cooperation between organizations are manyfold. Instead of co-operating, actors dependent on each other have been seeking to achieve cost reductions or profit improvements at the expense of someone else in the supply chain.

Companies engaging in transferring costs upstream or downstream arguably do not realize that such strategies will not make them more competitive, as all costs will ultimately make their way to the market in the form of increased end consumer prices. This understanding has to be developed which will take time.

vii. The Demand Invisibility:

The demand invisibility, long lead time, poor synchronization of supply and demand, leads to the demand distortion. Supply chain in India is badly adapted to provide sufficient service even to the key segments of the product range. The other critical problem is that supply is discontinuous, even for some Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG)!

The increase in variability throughout the supply chain is partly a result of delays in information flow and miscalculating changes in consumer demand. The accumulation or draught of buffer stocks affects the order levels in each echelon, thus further delaying and distorting the information on changes in demand.

viii. Supplier Maturity and Relations:

The problems from supplier side are many. The problem of on time delivery and in the required quantity is serious with Indian Suppliers. The services rendered by them are poor and need much improvement. The relationship between supplier and retailer also plays key role in this and Retailer finds regular supply a difficult task. Still suppliers are not mature and professional.

ix. Availability of Skilled Manpower:

This is a big problem before many sectors including retail. Retail sector is labour intensive and manpower with various skills are needed. In advanced countries such shortage is not witnessed and a large number of people are engaged in it eg, in US 10-11% of the workforce is engaged in Retail whereas in India this share is between 7-8% only and that too is not fully equipped to meet the needs of the sector. There is a dearth of expertise in both at store level and managerial level.

x . Real Estate Costs :

The cost of real estate in India is soaring high since last few years. It increases the fixed cost with small contribution per sale for retailers. Entry of retailers has further pushed the cost of real estate in metros and cities.

xi . Low Adoption and Use of Technology :

Information Technology (IT) can help achieve great benefits in terms of the agility and visibility of the information flow. The problem is very crucial in India. India has 97% unorganized retail market. Unorganized business means that the demand and supply is made on an ad-hoc basis by each player of the supply chain thereby creating uncertainties in demand. Almost 50% of the fruits and vegetables produced in India are lost in the supply chain. In tonnage terms, this is almost the amount that is consumed in Great Britain.

However, systematic implementation of Information Technology to improve the inventory management can make a very big difference in the present time Inspite of globalization and availability of high level technology in India, the Indian retailers are not tech savy as compared to their counterparts in advanced markets. The big retailers like Wal Mart are using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) which helps in providing inventory visibility of higher magnitude and hence, makes the inventory management easy and efficient.

As against this, the Indian retailers have not even completely adopted the bar code system. The technology is big challenge before the Indian retailers. Indian retailer with millions – or hundreds of millions of transactions per period face significant technological difficulties in performing activity-based costing and other forms of profit analysis essential to understanding the details of what drives the business, to focus on continuous profits and performance improvement.

xii. Lack of Information:

In India, the enterprises are helped more with information about input supply like finance, skills and technology and less, as compared, with information about output demand like new and existing customer's needs. It is at this point of retail that a customer demand gets converted into a sale.

By virtue of the location in the distribution chain, retailer is the most informed and qualified person to give information about the products. Retailer is very important for ensuring product availability and pre-call research and is also important for drawing up a good brand matrix.

xiii. Chaos in Supply Chain:

The existence of chaos in a supply chain also means that it is impossible to make the right decisions for every player in a supply chain. The risk of making the wrong or ineffective decisions becomes the inevitable consequence and the supply chain is exposed to market risks.

Thus, missing the market opportunities, a, supply chain cannot be responsive to changing market trends and customer preferences if the right market signals cannot be obtained. Finally, market opportunities can be missed when customer orders with short order lead times cannot be met.

xiv. Regulatory Provision:

Indian economy despite liberalization and globalization is still under several controls and regulations. The retail sector is witnessing facing several problems from regulation side. A number of Acts and provisions obstruct the smooth functioning and operation of retailing.

A number of provisions such as FDI restrictions, entry of foreign players, application of Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee Act which presupposes that even small quantity purchases have to qualify like a wholesale deal, etc. are the challenges before retail sector.

xv. Disparities in Culture and Taste:

This is perhaps the most critical factor since India is a country of diversity. There are differences in cultural preferences and tastes of people, festivals and ceremonies. There is no match with global culture. All these put a great challenge before a retailer since it requires inventory of various types of things. The MNCs face various problems and they have to come up with customized products.

x vi. Concerns over Indian Retailers:

The organized sector faces stiff opposition from unorganized sector. Similarly foreign retailers are looked from suspicion. The smaller ones are scared that big retailer will capture their market share. There is another apprehension that the organized retailing will affect the general mass adversely. It will lead to unemployment to traditional retailers and will destroy the social fabric. There are about 15 million small shops serving the customers of the country.

The Indian retail sector is required to take on challenges from global retail players such as Wal-Mart and Carrefour. Indian retailers have an advantage since unlike global retailers; they have a better understanding of the Indian consumer's psyche. Ultimately, a successful retailer is one who understands his customer.

x vii. Globalisation a Challenge :

Globalization of the market and India considering the opening of the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the field of retail, has increased suppliers, manufacturers, brands, distribution and logistics partners. This has resulted in complex international supply network relationships. Mistrust and distorted information throughout the supply chain. This increased links lead to higher costs and inefficiencies through over-ordering inventory and then ordering too little.

xviii. Psychology of Indian Consumer:

The Indian customer is different from customer of advanced countries. He is looking for an emotional connection, a sense of belonging. Hence, to be successful any retail outlet has to be localised. The customer should feel that it is a part of his culture, his perceived values, and does not try to impose alien values or concepts on him.

Indian customer is not keen to buy something just because it is sold by an international company. Ultimately, it depends upon the degree to which a global retailer goes for localisation and adapt Indian psyche. Other than tremendous size, global companies have nothing extra or special that the Indian retail business does not have.

Indian Retailers today face various and complex challenges and barriers to success, they must compete globally and sell products locally, catering to the distinct and fast-changing tastes of local consumers while meeting competition that can come from global players. Retailers need to provide a differentiated shopping experience, while striving for growth and profitability. Adding to these many hurdles, operating in an environment of high transaction volume makes analyzing and reporting on crucial data a very challenging prospect.


Retail Marketing – Changing Structure of Retailing with Theories of Structural Change

All dynamic developments in retailing—from the birth of department stores in the last century to the recent emergence of warehouse clubs and hypermarkets—have been in response to a changing environment. Changing customer demands, new technologies, intense competition, and social changes create new opportunities even as they shake up existing businesses.

In the future, the turbulent environment in which retailers operate will most likely accelerate the pace of change. Technological advances, changing demographics, and shifts in consumer preferences and shopping expectations are expected to bring about undreamt of changes in the structure of the retail industry.

In fact, the retail business formats have been changing very rapidly, mainly as a result of technological influences. The Web and Internet technologies have created a plethora of opportunities for the Web-based business model of retailing. This has triggered a competition of sorts among many a retailer with their own selves. Besides, the challenge for the retailers now is to keep abreast of the latest formats to maintain and grow their market share and compete within their respective bands.

A key impact of technology has been availability of vast information to the customer. This has left the retailers with few or no opportunities for price differentiation. Hence, a big challenge for the retailer in this information savvy world is differentiation either qualitatively by superior customer services, or better value for money to the customer.

With the wealth of information that the present-day customer now has, it becomes imperative for retailers to constantly improvise their customer services or re-design its value pack to stay ahead of competition. Simultaneously, technology is also propelling efforts towards product and service differentiation. This throws up a major challenge to retailer service or store experience- re-design and realign with the support of latest available technologies and, thus, make the overall customer experience more satisfying and fruitful.

Towards this end, it is seen in Western economies that there is a sharp focus on customer convenience and services in the retail stores.

In India too, banks, airlines, and hotels are enabling customers to pay bills and plan their vacations from home through cable TV and videotext systems. It is now possible to buy a variety of products and services without even entering a store. Electronic inventory systems have spawned discount stores that offer the same merchandise as traditional department stores at much lower prices.

Speciality stores have carved out a niche for themselves by offering greater selection and better services than those offered by department stores with limited merchandise lines. Off-price retailers have made a year round business out of leftover merchandise and factory overruns. Retailing firms that once occupied a unique position, such as traditional department and discount stores, are now being squeezed by more innovative firms.

To understand the changes in retailing business in a better way, we will now examine the theories of change in retailing.

Theories of Structural Change in Retailing :

Retailing has always been a dynamic industry. New firms introduce innovative approaches to retailing, and transform the sector as they enter, develop, and grow. 'Village malls' are an example of how new retailers can introduce new business formats. Village malls are an extension of the fair price shops that have been revamped to cater to the larger needs of the local population.

Though many states have introduced this retail format spearheaded by the Gujarat government, where it has been successfully running for the last two three years, these retailers are still in an entry stage called development and introduction. It, however, remains to be seen how successful this format proves in the long run.

Those retailers who are successful enough to survive the development and introduction stage enter the growth stage. The rapidly growing off-price retailer TJ Maxx is an example of a retailer in the second stage of development.

As the business grows further, it moves gradually into the maturity stage, wherein the competition intensifies and strategies have to be developed to maintain the existing market share. Most department stores today are in this stage of development. Stores that cannot compete effectively pass into the decline stage and eventually run out of business. Traditional variety stores like Ben Franklin are now in decline.

In India too, traditional apparel stores are on the decline. The entire process can take just a few years or decades, depending on the conditions of competition. Understanding how and why this process occurs is essential for success in the sector. We will examine three theories of how firms evolve and change the industry in the process. Although the theories differ, they speak about the same problem. In retailing, change is not a matter of chance; it is a certainty.

Wheel of Retailing :

The wheel of retailing is one of the better known theories of structural change in retailing. It was proposed by Malcomb McNair at Harvard University. It is basically a theory of cyclical or circular development. The wheel of retailing concept describes how retail institutions transform during their evolutionary life cycles.

New retailing institutions enter the market as low-status, low-margin, and low-price operations. As these retailers achieve success, attempts are made to increase their customer base and sales. Products are upgraded, facilities are improved, and new services are added. Prices and margins are increased to support these higher costs.

Then the cycle begins again. New retailers enter the market to fill the low-status, low-margin, and low- price niche. A retail store type emerges, enjoys a period of accelerated growth, reaches maturity, and declines. The retail store types pass through stages of growth and decline. However, the wheel of retailing theory has been criticized because it does not explain all changes in retailing. In fact, many stores do not begin as low-price, low-service outlets.

Dialectic Process :

A second theory holds that retailing evolves through a dialectic process—the blending of two opposing store types into a superior form. For example, speciality stores offer specialized merchandise, a wide array of services, and attractive surroundings to a large and diverse market.

The blending of two formats produces the speciality store. For example, Fabindia and Nalli offer both a wide array of customer services and a broad assortment of specialized merchandise in the apparel category in a conducive ambience.

Natural Selection :

According to the theory of natural selection, retail stores evolve to meet changes in the micro-environment. The retailers that successfully adapt to technological, social, demographic, economic, and political/legal changes are most likely to grow and prosper.

The variety store is often cited as an example of a retail format that failed to adapt to changing times. Today, these once successful retailers have almost died out. In contrast, television home shopping networks are likely to expand and grow because they are responding to changes in the lifestyles of the consumers.

The theory of natural selection is more inclusive than those of the wheel of retailing and the dialectic process, which are based solely on a profit-cost analysis, because it takes into account macro-environmental forces. Yet all the three theories suffer from a lack of emphasis on customer taste, wants, desires, and expectations.

By gravitating to those stores that best meet their desires and needs, and shunning those that do not, consumers exert a powerful force on the evolution of retailing as does any other part of the macro-environment.

The retailers will succeed only by knowing their customers well. Consumers expect retailers to provide timely and fashionable merchandise at a convenient location for a reasonable price. They expect value not only in the goods they buy but also in the total shopping experience, which includes pleasant atmospherics, well- trained and courteous salespersons, and special touches like live entertainment.


Retail Marketing – Security Issues in Retailing

Everything comes with a price. This is a very common saying. The retailer earns huge amount of profits, but he has to pay something for such profits. Also to earn these profits the retailer has to face many troubles and problems. The word 'woes' means the common problems, troubles, difficulties causing distress and anxiety in the mind of the retailer.

Thus woes are the common problems faced by the retailers in carrying out the retail operations. These common woes are in the form of shop lifting, employee theft, parking space problems, employee turnover, large amount of credit sales, etc. The retailers over the years have started realizing their security needs and have started deploying sophisticated technology and information systems in order to deal with the customers.

The major woes that are faced by the retailers are as follows:

A. Shop Lifting :

Shop lifting is a very common problem that is faced by the retailers. It refers to the theft of goods by the intended customers. It involves hiding the goods and taking them out of the store without paying for them. Also included in shop lifting are eating of food items at the store without paying for them or swapping the price lists of the goods like

changing the price list of the costly items with cheap ones, etc.

Generally the items that are shop lifted are the ones that are relatively small in size but high in value. Examples of such items are cigarette packets, blades, razors, small items from jewelry shops, etc. Shop Lifting is also known as five finger discount.

Over the time, the losses to the retailers due to shop lifting have increased considerably. The retailers have deployed so many information systems and sophisticated technology in order to protect themselves from shop lifting losses. Also by taking few precautions shop lifting can be avoided.

The following are the major ways in which shop lifting can be avoided:

(i) Keeping the items that are of high value at safe places or in the custody of the salesmen.

(ii) Using cameras and mirrors at different areas in the shop. This creates the fear of being watched in the mind of the customer.

(iii) Displaying the warnings and consequences of shop lifting at different areas in retail outlet.

(iv) Not letting the customers enter the store with their shopping bags and other such things in which the customer can hide the articles and take them out of the store. Generally the shopping bags and other such items are kept at the entry in the custody of a guard.

(v) Making proper display arrangement of the goods at the retail store. Also proper lighting arrangements should be made at the retail store.

(vi) The design of the store must be made in consultation with the security personnel so that the security features can be incorporated in the store design itself.

(vii) There should be a single entrance to the retail store. This helps in monitoring the customers especially during the peak seasons.

Apart from these there can be many innovative measures that can be taken by the retailer in order to reduce shop lifting.

B. Employee Theft :

Employees are the most valuable resources of any organization. These valuable resources have access to the firm's almost every resource. These resources are in form of cash, cash registers, other important accounting books, stock of merchandise, etc. Therefore there are greater chances of the employees stealing the goods. There can be a number of ways by which the employees can embezzle the goods.

The following are the major ways in which the employees can steal the goods or cash, etc.:

(i) The employees have a better access to cash and the inventory. Therefore, they can easily misappropriate or steal the goods as well as the cash. Also they have an improved access to the books to accounts. So, they can easily show fraudulent transactions, false transfers, refunds, gifts, etc. Since, this type of fraud is committed within the organization and by the employees; it becomes difficult for the retailer to find out such frauds.

(ii) Another fraud that can be committed by the employees is refund fraud. In refund fraud, the employee shows fake sales of the goods using fake or incomplete customer information and then returns the goods to the store and takes away the cash. Such returns generally miss important customer information or contain fake customer information.

(iii) Discount Fraud is another kind of fraud that is committed by the employees. In discount fraud, employees purchase the articles from the store by using the special employee discount that the retailer offers to them. Then such employees sell these less cost items at other stores or to their friends and acquaintances at a price lesser than the retail price but higher than their purchase price.

The following are the main ways by which the retailer can prevent the losses caused by the employee theft:

(i) Recruiting employees after thoroughly verifying their background.

(ii) Imposing some limits on the employees beyond which they cannot buy the discounted goods at the store.

(iii) Establish proper accountability of the employees by clearly dividing their duties.

(iv) Keep checks on the employees.

(v) Inspecting books of accounts at regular intervals and find and investigate any irregularities.

(vi) Train the employees and make them realize their moral responsibility towards the business.

(vii) Keep a track of the refunds every month and thoroughly investigate any large value returns made to the store.

(viii) The refund form must be signed by the employee as well as the senior employee.

(ix) Ascertaining if there are cash shortages over a longer period of time and investigating the reasons thereof.

C. Inventory Shrinkages :

Inventory shrinkages mean reduction in the stock of inventory. Inventory shrinkage is caused by a number of reasons such as employee theft, shop lifting, vendor fraud or administrative errors. Handing inventory shrinkages is a difficult task and poses a challenge for the retailer.

The retailer needs to take proper care of the inventory shrinkages. The value of the inventory shrinkage can be determined as a difference between the physical stock of goods and the recorded stock of goods.

The retailer can take the following measures in order to reduce inventory shrinkages:

(i) Keeping regular checks on the inventory by continuous stock taking.

(ii) Fixing the values at which the employees can buy the goods at cheaper rates from the retailer. This will limit the discount fraud.

(iii) Also the retailer should keep a check on any large refunds made by the business. This would help him in keeping a check on the refund fraud.

(iv) Some of the inventory shrinkage is caused as a result of shop lifting. The retailer should install the cameras and mirrors all around the retail outlet in order to keep a check on the shoplifters.

(v) The employees should be appointed after properly checking their background.

D. Cash Shrinkages :

Cash shrinkages mean decrease in the cash balance. Cash shrinkage normally occurs due to the embezzlement caused by the people who have an easy access to the cash or books of accounts such as cashiers, accountants, etc.

The retailer must be very careful and keep a vigilant eye on the employees who are in charge of the books of accounts and the cash. Also in order to avoid any situation of cash shrinkage, the retailer must take periodic balances of cash himself. Also he should compare the cash shrinkages in the past with the current ones and find out the reasons thereof.

Over the years, the concerns about the store security have increased. Now the retailers try to identify the potential threats and design the systems in such a manner so that they can fight those threats. The retailers are increasingly relying on the information technology in order to minimize these threats.

Minimizing the Retail Threats by Using Information Technology :

The retailers have now become aware about the potential security threats to their business and are now taking steps to minimize these threats by using information technology.

The following are the main forms of information technology being used by the retailers in order to minimize the retail threats:

Use of information technology by retailers:

1. Biometric System:

Biometric system makes use of sophisticated technology which identifies special human characteristics such as finger prints, retina and iris, face recognition, voice recognition, size and shape of hand, etc. All these characteristics are specific to each individual and hence are very authentic proof of somebody's identity.

By using biometrics, the retailers have been able to reduce the credit card losses, etc. Hence it has increased customer confidence. Also the retailers are using biometric systems in order to record the entry and exit time of their employees. This has proved to be extremely useful as it has improved the attendance of the workforce and has also reduced so many frauds committed in the name of others.

2. Wireless Technology:

By using the wireless technology, the retailers are able to monitor the in-store operations very effectively. The retailers can have the knowledge about any area of the retail store. An effective medium by which the retailer can communicate with anybody around the store is walkie talkie.

3. Integrated Electronic Security Management Solution (Close Circuit Television Cameras):

These types of systems are being increasingly used by the retailers these days. It includes the use of camera surveillance to notice the activities taking place in and around the retail store. It also involves creating a video recording of the activities taking place in and around the store. It provides immediate accessibility to these recorded videos in order to use them at any time in future such as for evidences, investigations, etc.

Also included in this is the remote viewing of the retailer's shop. By using this feature, the retailer can view his shop live from any corner around the world by using internet. Also there is a system of alarms. The alarm will automatically ring and an e-mail will be sent to the retailer on the happening of a pre-defined event.

For example, if the retailer has fed in the system that on someone trying to open the lock of the retail outlet illegitimately, the alarm should ring. If someone tries to open the retail outlet illegitimately, the alarm will ring and an e-mail will be automatically sent to the retailer. This system has proved to be extremely useful for the retailer against any possible thefts or shop lifting, etc.

4. Bar Code Technology:

This is a very common technology that is used by the retailers. Every product is assigned a unique bar code. Typically a bar code is a symbol consisting of many bars with some specific distance between them. A bar code contains information about the country code, the company code, the product code, the check digit, etc.

When the bill is made, these bar codes are read by the bar code scanners and the details of the product are automatically loaded in the computer. This is a very effective technology that helps in saving time while billing. Also if any article goes missing in the bar code series, it becomes easy to know the product details as all the information is already loaded in the computer. Also bar codes are useful in stock taking and therefore any inventory shrinkages can be known.

5. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID):

RFID is a technology that is increasingly being used by the retailers these days. It is replacing the bar code technology. RFID includes retrieving and storing information from the tags attached to the products through frequency modulated radio wave transmission.

RFID technology helps in tracking the goods anywhere in the world as long as the RFID reader is within the range. This is an extremely useful technology and if used properly can help in tracking even the stolen products. But sometimes this technology is viewed as a disadvantage because it may sometimes be viewed as an interference in individual's privacy and can be used to track the movements of the customer inside and outside the store.

6. Electronic Article Surveillance:

The electronic article surveillance is another form of technology that is being used by the retailers. Under this technology, all the articles are attached with specific tags. When the customer buys the articles, these tags are removed properly by the sales clerks.

But if the articles are stolen by somebody or he tries to move out of the store with the same stolen articles, the alarm rings at the exit of the store and therefore the retailer is alarmed about the shoplifting. Also various articles of inventory can be tracked by using this electronic article surveillance. All these have helped the retailer being prevented from the threat of goods being shoplifted.

Some additional issues are described below:

1. The use of franchising – Many brands are franchised to other businesses that run stores or retail merchandise carrying the well-known franchised brand.

2. The type of locations – Expensive city centre prime pitches, secondary sites, edge-of-town retail parks or free-standing super stores.

3. Property portfolio ownership – Whether to acquire (own) or rent sites, with the associated financial implications.

4. Product assortment (Mix) decisions – How far to extend or diversify.

5. Retail brand positioning, store image and in-store atmospherics – Retailers devote significant attention and resources to develop differentiated and desirable brand identities.

6. Scrambled merchandising – The addition of unrelated products to the product mix.

7. The use of retail technology – It includes inventory management tools, CRM systems and loyalty schemes and in-store displays.

8. Channel coordination – How to harness the possibilities of e-commerce alongside more traditional channels.

9. Regulation – Increasing government regulation over monopoly ownership.

10. Supply chain power – The balance of power and cooperation between retailers and their suppliers.

11. Global retailing – more and more retail companies are acquiring businesses in other countries or spreading their brands into new territories through organic growth.


 

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