Jenis Pengecer

Semua yang perlu Anda ketahui tentang berbagai jenis pengecer. Pengecer memiliki banyak fungsi. Di satu sisi mereka menciptakan pasar untuk konsumsi barang dan jasa dan di sisi lain menghasilkan lapangan kerja bagi jutaan orang.

Pengecer membentuk penghubung terakhir dan vital dalam saluran distribusi produk karena merekalah yang mengambil barang dari produsen, dengan membelinya dari grosir, ke konsumen akhir. Mereka memiliki hubungan yang jauh lebih kuat dan pribadi dengan konsumen.

Jenis-jenis pengecer dapat diklasifikasikan berdasarkan: -

1. Produk atau Layanan 2. Kepemilikan 3. Jumlah Outlet / Cabang 4. Berbagai Produk yang Dijual 5. Jumlah Lini Produk yang Dibawa 6. Tingkat Layanan 7. Strategi Harga 8. Ukuran Toko 9. Lokasi 10. Metode Operasi 11. Lokasi Fasilitas.

Beberapa jenis pengecer adalah sebagai berikut: -

1. Pengecer Keliling atau Bergerak 2. Peritel Toko Tetap 3. Penjaja dan Pedagang 4. Pedagang Pasar 5. Pedagang Kaki Lima 6. Jack Murah

7. Pengecer Kecil Toko Tetap 8. Toko Besar Pengecer Tetap 9. Pengecer Independen 10. Pengecer Toko Rantai 11. Outlet yang Dimiliki Produsen 12. Outlet Waralaba

13. Department Store 14. Toko Khusus 15. toko variasi 16. Toko Swalayan 17. Pengecer Layanan Terbatas 18. Pengecer Layanan Lengkap.


Jenis Pengecer: Berdasarkan Produk atau Layanan, Berdasarkan Kepemilikan, Menurut Cabang, Menurut Strategi Penentuan Harga, Menurut Lokasi dan Rincian Lainnya

Jenis Pengecer - Pengecer Keliling atau Bergerak dan Pengecer Toko Tetap (Dengan Fitur)

Jenis # 1. Pengecer keliling atau Mobile:

Mereka terus bergerak dari satu tempat ke tempat lain untuk menjual barang-barang mereka. Mereka tidak memiliki tempat usaha tetap.

Fitur Pengecer Keliling :

(a) Mereka berpindah dari jalan ke jalan untuk menghubungi pelanggan.

(B) Mereka menjual barang bernilai rendah dari penggunaan sehari-hari seperti mainan, buah-buahan, sayuran, dll.

(c) Mereka kebanyakan menjual barang-barang non-merek dan lokal.

(d) Mereka tidak menjual dengan harga tetap.

Jenis Pengecer Keliling :

(i) Penjaja dan Penjaja:

Mereka membawa barang-barang sendiri di keranjang atau di tas bahu atau di kereta dorong. Mereka bergerak di daerah perumahan dan memanggil nama artikel yang mereka jual. Mereka adalah pedagang asongan, mereka tidak memiliki modal yang cukup dan tidak dapat menyimpan barang dalam jumlah besar. Keuntungan utama mereka adalah mereka memberikan layanan yang nyaman bagi konsumen dan batasannya adalah mereka berurusan dengan produk-produk yang tidak dapat diandalkan dalam hal kualitas, harga, dan daya tahan.

(ii) Pedagang Pasar:

Mereka menjual barang-barang mereka di tempat yang berbeda pada hari-hari pasar tetap, misalnya, Senin, Rabu. Mereka terutama melayani kelompok pelanggan berpenghasilan rendah dan menangani barang-barang konsumsi murah dan murah yang digunakan sehari-hari.

(iii) Pedagang Kaki Lima:

Mereka menyebarkan barang-barang mereka di trotoar di sudut-sudut jalan yang sibuk atau di dekat stasiun kereta api atau terminal bus. Mereka berurusan dengan surat kabar, majalah, barang makan, barang alat tulis, dll. Mereka tidak berpindah dari satu tempat ke tempat lain dengan barang-barang mereka.

(iv) Jack Murah:

Mereka memiliki struktur toko sementara. Mereka mengubah tempat bisnis mereka setelah beberapa waktu. Mereka tetap berada di satu tempat hanya untuk sementara waktu, tergantung pada prospek bisnis mereka. Mereka berurusan dengan barang-barang konsumsi dari penggunaan sehari-hari serta layanan seperti perbaikan jam tangan, sepatu dll.

Jenis # 2. Pengecer Toko Tetap :

Mereka memiliki perusahaan permanen untuk menjual barang-barang mereka baik di pasar lokal atau di mal.

Fitur:

(i) Mereka memiliki sumber daya yang lebih besar daripada pengecer keliling ini.

(ii) Mereka menangani berbagai produk.

(iii) Mereka memberikan layanan yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan yang disediakan oleh keliling untuk pelanggan seperti memberikan jaminan, fasilitas kredit dan pengiriman rumah dll.

(iv) Mereka memiliki kredibilitas dan niat baik yang lebih besar di benak pelanggan.

Pengecer Tetap terdiri dari Dua Jenis :

saya. Pengecer Kecil Toko Tetap, dan

ii. Pengecer Besar Toko Tetap.

saya. Pengecer Kecil Toko Tetap :

(1) Toko Umum:

(a) Ini dipasang di area perumahan.

(B) Mereka stok semua jenis produk yang dibutuhkan oleh penduduk setempat untuk penggunaan sehari-hari.

(c) Mereka tetap buka selama berjam-jam pada waktu yang nyaman.

(D) Mereka memberikan fasilitas kredit kepada pelanggan reguler jika diperlukan.

(2) Toko Khusus:

Mereka terletak di tempat sentral di setiap daerah. Mereka umumnya berspesialisasi dalam satu jenis produk daripada berurusan di berbagai lini produk.

Beberapa contoh di antaranya adalah:

(a) Toko yang hanya menjual pakaian anak-anak.

(B) Toko yang berurusan dengan buku-buku pendidikan saja.

(3) Pemegang Kios Jalanan:

(a) Mereka berada di persimpangan jalan atau di jalan utama.

(B) Mereka mengatur kios mereka dengan memasang rak di dinding atau menempatkan meja atau membuat platform untuk menjual dan memajang barang.

(c) Mereka menjual barang-barang berharga murah seperti pena, majalah, barang kaus kaki murah dll.

(4) Toko Barang Bekas:

(a) Mereka berurusan dengan barang bekas seperti pakaian, buku, perabot, dll.

(B) Orang dengan sederhana berarti membeli barang dari toko tersebut.

(c) Mereka menyimpan barang-barang langka seperti prangko tua dan barang-barang antik dan menjualnya dengan harga lebih tinggi.

(5) Toko Detik:

Toko-toko ini menjual barang-barang yang tidak sesuai dengan spesifikasi standar. Ini dijual dalam hitungan detik. Mereka memiliki beberapa cacat kecil di dalamnya dan cacat ini tidak terlihat. Ini dijual dengan diskon besar. Toko-toko ini terletak di pasar. Bahkan pabrikan juga membuka gerai ritel untuk membuang barang-barang tersebut. Pakaian readymade, barang olahraga, sepatu dll dijual di toko-toko ini. Kadang-kadang toko-toko ini didirikan sementara dengan mengambil tempat, aula atau jamuan disewa.

(6) Toko Single Line:

Toko-toko ini hanya menjual satu lini produk. Mereka menyediakan desain, gaya, dan ukuran kualitas yang berbeda dari produk yang sama. Misalnya toko yang menjual sepatu akan memiliki semua jenis dan ukuran sepatu yang ditujukan untuk anak-anak, tuan-tuan dan wanita.

ii. Pengecer Besar Toko Tetap :

Pengecer ini menangani persediaan barang dalam jumlah besar.

Karakteristik toko tersebut adalah:

(1) Mereka membutuhkan investasi yang sangat besar.

(2) Mereka umumnya terletak di tempat pusat atau di pusat perbelanjaan.

(3) Jejak kaki pelanggan sangat tinggi di toko-toko tersebut.

Jenis pengecer skala besar yang paling umum adalah sebagai berikut:

(a) Toko serba ada

(B) Beberapa toko rantai toko

(c) Penjualan pesanan melalui pos

(d) Toko Koperasi Konsumen

(e) Pasar super

(a) Toko Departemen :

Ini adalah toko ritel besar di mana berbagai produk dijual melalui departemen terpisah di bawah satu atap. 'Banmarche' adalah toko ritel pertama yang dibuka di Prancis pada tahun 1852. Ada toko-toko seperti ini di India yang meliputi 'Akberally' di Mumbai dan 'Spencers' di Chennai.

Fitur dari Departmental Store :

(1) Lokasi pusat di pasar lokal besar.

(2) Banyak unit atau departemen di toko yang sama di bawah satu atap.

(3) Kepemilikan, manajemen, dan kontrol terpusat.

(4) Berbagai jenis barang disimpan dan dijual. Karena itu, pelanggan mendapat pilihan yang lebih baik.

(5) Layanan pribadi seperti bilik telepon, kamar kecil, restoran dll disediakan.

Keuntungan:

(i) Lokasi Terpusat - Orang-orang yang tinggal di berbagai daerah kota dapat dengan mudah mencapai sana untuk berbelanja.

(ii) Kenyamanan dalam Membeli - Semua barang tersedia di berbagai bagian dalam satu atap.

(iii) Layanan Menarik - Layanan seperti ruang baca, pengiriman rumah gratis, restoran, perpustakaan, saloons dll tersedia.

(iv) Ekonomi Skala Besar - Manfaat operasi skala besar sehubungan dengan pembelian barang tersedia untuk mereka.

(v) Pengeluaran Besar untuk Promosi Penjualan - Karena posisi keuangan yang baik, mereka dapat membelanjakan uang secara bebas untuk promosi.

Keterbatasan :

(i) Kurangnya Perhatian Pribadi - Karyawan diangkat dengan gaji tetap. Hal ini menyebabkan kurangnya inisiatif dan sentuhan pribadi di pihak karyawan.

(ii) Biaya Operasional yang Tinggi - Karena biaya iklan, tampilan jendela dan showroom, itu membuat barang sangat mahal.

(iii) Lokasi Tidak Nyaman - Mereka terletak jauh dari daerah perumahan. Ini kehilangan permintaan artikel yang dibutuhkan saat pemberitahuan singkat oleh pelanggan.

(iv) Kemungkinan Kerugian Tinggi - Karena biaya operasi yang besar dan operasi skala besar, ada kemungkinan kerugian.

(B) Beberapa Toko / Toko Rantai :

Ini adalah toko ritel yang dimiliki dan dikendalikan oleh satu organisasi besar. Kebanyakan dari mereka juga merupakan produsen. Mereka terletak di berbagai bagian kota di seluruh negeri. Mereka menangani produk serupa dengan harga seragam.

Contoh - (i) Bata, (ii) McDonald, (iii) Big Apple, (iv) Reebok, (v) Reliance Fresh, dan (vi) Adidas.

Fitur Rantai Toko / Beberapa Toko :

(i) Ini terletak di lokasi yang cukup padat, di mana cukup banyak pelanggan dapat didekati.

(ii) Semua cabang dikendalikan oleh kantor pusat yang berkenaan dengan merumuskan kebijakan dan menerapkannya.

(iii) Manufaktur dan pengadaan barang dipusatkan di kantor pusat.

(iv) Penjualan didesentralisasi.

(v) Semua penjualan dilakukan secara tunai.

(vi) Beberapa toko memiliki tampilan, dekorasi, rencana tata letak yang identik, dll.

Keuntungan:

(i) Ekonomi Skala Besar - Mereka menikmati keuntungan dari operasi skala besar khususnya dalam pembelian dan produksi barang karena sejumlah besar barang dibeli dan dijual di beberapa toko.

(ii) Produk Standar - Barang-barangnya berkualitas tinggi. Pembeli terjamin kualitasnya.

(iii) Tidak Ada Hutang Buruk - Barang dijual hanya berdasarkan uang tunai, sehingga tidak ada risiko kredit macet.

(iv) Transfer Barang dan Penyebaran Risiko - Produk, yang tidak diminati di toko tertentu, dapat dialihkan ke toko lain. Dengan demikian, risiko staleness diminimalkan. Total risiko bisnis tersebar. Keuntungan di satu toko dapat memberikan perlindungan atas kerugian di toko lain di lokasi yang berbeda.

(v) Penghapusan Tengkulak - Dengan menjual barang langsung ke pelanggan, beberapa toko dapat menghilangkan perantara.

(vi) Biaya Lebih Rendah - Karena manufaktur dan pembelian terpusat, penghapusan perantara, iklan terpusat, dll., toko-toko memiliki biaya operasi bisnis yang rendah.

(vii) Fleksibilitas - Manajemen memiliki opsi untuk menutup toko yang merugi dan memindahkannya ke tempat lain.

Keterbatasan:

(i) Variasi Barang Terbatas - Kisaran varietas terbatas dan setiap toko menyimpan stok barang yang diproduksi dan didistribusikan oleh pemiliknya saja.

(ii) Kurangnya Layanan - Pengiriman rumah gratis dan fasilitas kredit tidak tersedia untuk pelanggan.

(iii) Kurangnya Inisiatif - Manajer tidak memiliki kebebasan untuk melakukan pembelian dan menetapkan harga barang. Dengan demikian, ada kurangnya inisiatif di pihak mereka untuk menggunakan keterampilan kreatif mereka untuk memuaskan pelanggan.

(iv) Investasi Modal Besar dan Overhead Berat - Toko-toko ini membutuhkan investasi modal yang besar. Mereka menghabiskan banyak uang untuk sewa toko, dekorasi, administrasi dan pengawasan.

(v) Peluang Penipuan - Pengawasan dan kontrol yang ketat tidak dimungkinkan karena ada banyak cabang; jadi ada kemungkinan penipuan.

Rumah Pemesanan Surat :

Ini adalah gerai ritel yang menjual barang-barang mereka melalui surat. Umumnya tidak ada kontak langsung antara pembeli dan penjual dalam jenis perdagangan ini.

Prosedur perdagangan :

Langkah 1 - Iklan untuk memberikan informasi tentang produk:

Pelanggan potensial didekati melalui iklan di surat kabar atau majalah untuk mendapatkan pesanan. Surat edaran, katalog dll dikirim kepada mereka melalui pos. Semua informasi yang relevan tentang produk seperti harga, fitur, ketentuan pengiriman dll disediakan dalam iklan ini.

Langkah 2 - Menerima pesanan dan pemrosesan barang:

Saat menerima pesanan, barang diperiksa dengan cermat sehubungan dengan keterangan khusus yang diminta oleh pelanggan. Kemudian barang dikirim ke pelanggan melalui- (a) kantor pos oleh VPP, atau (b) bank

Langkah 3 - Menerima pembayaran:

Ada beberapa alternatif untuk menerima pembayaran dari pelanggan.

(a) Pelanggan diminta untuk melakukan pembayaran penuh di muka sebelum barang dikirim melalui pos.

(B) Pelanggan dapat diminta untuk menyetor pembayaran penuh di bank dan mengumpulkan barang dari bank. Tidak ada risiko kredit macet.

(C) Barang dikirim oleh VPP Pada menerima paket itu pelanggan harus membayar jumlah kepada tukang pos.

Kesesuaian:

Perdagangan ini cocok ketika:

(a) Barang diidentifikasi dengan baik dan dikenal dengan nama merek dan memiliki kualitas standar.

(B) Ada permintaan populer oleh pelanggan yang tersebar di wilayah yang luas.

(c) Produk tidak memerlukan demonstrasi.

(d) Barang tahan lama dan tidak rusak dalam perjalanan.

Misalnya - barang alat tulis, peralatan kecil, obat-obatan, buku, kosmetik, barang toilet, perhiasan readymade, alas kaki, jam tangan dan produk bermerek lainnya.

Tidak cocok:

Perdagangan ini tidak cocok jika-

(a) Barang mudah rusak, misalnya, - susu, buah-buahan dll.

(B) Barang besar, misalnya, - televisi, lemari es dll

(c) Pelanggan buta huruf.

Keuntungan:

(i) Investasi Kecil - Perdagangan rumah pesanan melalui pos tidak memerlukan fasilitas infrastruktur seperti ruang pamer besar.

(ii) Tidak Ada Hutang Buruk - Perdagangan bisnis pesanan melalui surat tidak memberikan fasilitas kredit kepada pelanggan. Dengan demikian, tidak ada kemungkinan kredit macet.

(iii) Jangkauan Luas - Jenis bisnis perdagangan ini sangat cocok di mana calon pelanggan tersebar di area yang luas dan barang dapat dikirim ke semua tempat di mana layanan pos ada.

(iv) Kontak Langsung - Perantara yang tidak perlu antara pembeli dan penjual dihilangkan. Ini membantu dalam banyak penghematan.

(v) Kenyamanan - Barang dikirim di depan pintu pelanggan. Banyak waktu dan upaya pelanggan diselamatkan oleh metode ini. Sangat nyaman.

Keterbatasan :

(i) Kurangnya Sentuhan Pribadi - Pembeli tidak mendapatkan kesempatan untuk memeriksa dan mencoba barang sebelum membelinya. Penjual tidak dapat memberikan perhatian pribadi pada suka dan tidak suka pelanggan.

(ii) Biaya Promosi Tinggi - Pedagang harus menghabiskan banyak uang pada iklan untuk menginformasikan pembeli potensial tentang produk.

(iii) Tidak Layanan Purna Jual - Tidak ada layanan purna jual yang penting untuk kepuasan pelanggan.

(iv) Tanpa Fasilitas Kredit - Pelanggan harus membayar harga pada saat pengiriman barang. Terkadang harus dibayar di muka. Jadi fasilitas kredit tidak tersedia.

(v) Pengiriman Tertunda - Mungkin ada keterlambatan pengiriman karena waktu yang diambil dalam korespondensi, dalam pengadaan barang dan mengirimkannya melalui pos ke pelanggan.

(vi) Kemungkinan Pelecehan - Pedagang yang tidak jujur ​​dapat menipu pelanggan dengan membuat klaim palsu tentang kualitas produk dan tidak menghormati komitmen yang dibuat melalui iklan.

Mesin Penjual Otomatis :

Mesin penjual otomatis menjual barang dagangan ketika pelanggan menyetor uang yang cukup ke dalam slotnya atau melampiaskannya untuk membeli barang yang diinginkan. Ini berisi produk-produk seperti minuman, makanan ringan, permen, cokelat, tiket platform dll.

Contoh :

(a) Induk Susu menjual susu melalui mesin penjual otomatis.

(b) ATM (Anjungan Tunai Mandiri) dapat digunakan untuk menarik uang kapan saja tanpa mengunjungi cabang bank mana pun.

(c) Metro token dapat dibeli melalui mesin ini di stasiun Metro.

Keuntungan :

(i) Berguna untuk menjual merek produk bernilai rendah yang sudah dikemas sebelumnya, dengan omset tinggi, misalnya minuman panas, minuman ringan, dll.

(ii) Ini dapat menjual barang sepanjang waktu.

(iii) Ini memberikan layanan cepat kepada pelanggan.

(iv) Ini mendorong kebiasaan 'swadaya' pada pelanggan.

Keterbatasan:

(i) Pelanggan tidak dapat memeriksa barang sebelum membeli.

(ii) Biaya pemasangan awal, perbaikan dan pemeliharaan cukup tinggi.

(iii) Paket khusus harus dikembangkan sesuai untuk mesin.

(iv) Perawatan harus dilakukan untuk pengisian ulang secara teratur, mengganti persediaan mesin secara teratur.


Jenis Pengecer - Diklasifikasikan berdasarkan Produk atau Layanan, Jumlah Outlet, Berbagai Produk yang Dijual, Tingkat Layanan, Ukuran Toko, Lokasi & Beberapa Orang Lainnya

Pengecer dapat diklasifikasikan berdasarkan kriteria yang berbeda seperti:

1. Produk atau Layanan

2. Jumlah Outlet

3. Berbagai Produk Yang Dijual

4. Jumlah Lini Produk Yang Dibawa

5. Tingkat Layanan

6. Strategi Harga

7. Ukuran Toko (Area fisik)

8. Lokasi

9. Metode Operasi

10. Kepemilikan

11. Cluster / Lokasi Fasilitas

Kami akan membahas beberapa kategori penting:

1. Berdasarkan Produk atau Layanan:

Ini adalah dasar paling sederhana untuk klasifikasi pengecer. Pengecer barang berurusan dengan produk nyata. Misalnya, toko kelontong, supermarket, toko umum, ahli kimia, toko pakaian jadi, dll. Layanan pengecer berurusan dengan barang tidak berwujud, yaitu layanan. Misalnya, bank, konsultan, dokter, toko menjahit, salon kecantikan, crche, garasi, layanan pemeliharaan, transportasi, dll. Seiring dengan pertumbuhan industri jasa, layanan ritel memiliki cakupan luas di masa depan.

2. Berdasarkan Kepemilikan:

Pengecer dapat menjadi bagian dari rantai, milik pabrik, waralaba, atau dia bisa menjadi pengecer independen.

(a) Pengecer Independen:

Pengecer Independen adalah pemilik satu atau beberapa toko. Dimiliki oleh pemilik tunggal, dua atau lebih mitra atau keluarga. Pengecer bukan bagian dari rantai apa pun atau organisasi ritel besar. Sebagian besar pengecer kecil di India termasuk dalam kategori ini. Misalnya, toko umum, toko kelontong, toko sudut, yang mungkin memiliki satu atau lebih outlet yang dijalankan oleh pengecer independen.

Misalnya, Chitale Bandhu Mithaiwale - toko permen terkenal di Pune beroperasi melalui dua outlet eksklusif yang dimiliki oleh pabrikan. Selain itu, baru-baru ini telah memberikan hak waralaba kepada banyak pengecer dari berbagai bagian kota Pune.

(B) Toko Rantai:

Chain Store adalah bagian dari kelompok toko ritel yang dimiliki dan dioperasikan oleh satu organisasi perusahaan. Chain store dapat menjadi bagian dari organisasi korporasi atau sukarela, koperasi. Misalnya, Restoran Kamath dikelola oleh pemilik tunggal tetapi memiliki banyak outlet di kota-kota seperti Mumbai, Pune, Goa, Hyderabad, dll. Apna Bazaar memiliki rantai toko koperasi yang memiliki banyak outlet di Mumbai. Nalli, sebuah emporium sutra terkenal yang berbasis di Chennai telah membuka gerai di Mumbai.

(c) Outlet yang Dimiliki Produsen / Showroom Perusahaan / Factory Outlet:

Pabrikan atau perusahaan melakukan kegiatan ritel. Outlet ini dimiliki dan dikelola oleh produsen. Mungkin ada satu atau lebih jumlah gerai tersebut. Bentuk ini sebagian besar diamati di pakaian, sepatu, dan pengecer makanan bermerek. Bahkan produsen kecil menawarkan produk mereka di gerai mereka sendiri seperti toko roti, susu, dll.

Misalnya, produk bermerek seperti Bata, Nike, Bombay Dying, Sony World, dll. Dijual melalui ruang pamer eksklusif atau outlet pabrik. Produk-produk ini juga dijual oleh pengecer independen lainnya.

(d) Outlet Waralaba:

Pabrikan memberikan waralaba (wewenang) kepada sejumlah pengecer independen. Tapi mereka bukan pemilik dalam arti sebenarnya. Semua pengecer independen (pemegang waralaba) terikat untuk mengikuti aturan dan peraturan tertentu yang ditetapkan oleh produsen (pemilik waralaba). Misalnya, McDonald's, Beneton, Pantaloon, Raymond's Park Avenue, Klinik Dr. Batra, VLCC, Institut Pendidikan Komputer Aptech, dll.

3. Dengan Jumlah Outlet / Cabang:

Pengecer dapat beroperasi melalui satu toko atau dapat menjadi bagian dari rantai yang memiliki beberapa outlet. Misalnya, bank adalah pengecer layanan; mereka beroperasi melalui jumlah cabang yang tersebar di wilayah geografis yang luas. Outlet ritel dijalankan oleh pengecer independen kecil seperti toko Kirana, toko roti, garasi, dll. Mungkin hanya memiliki satu outlet. Pengecer besar di bawah kepemilikan tunggal dapat membuka banyak cabang di lokasi yang berbeda.

4. Dengan Berbagai Produk Yang Dijual:

Toko-toko eceran dapat diklasifikasikan berdasarkan berbagai produk yang ditawarkan. Menurut kriteria ini, outlet ritel dapat berupa Department Store atau Specialty Store atau Variety Store.

(a) Department Store:

Ini adalah outlet ritel besar yang memiliki departemen atau bagian yang berbeda untuk berbagai jenis produk. Menawarkan berbagai macam produk umum. Barang dagangan representatif / sampel ditampilkan di area yang terpisah, yang memberikan gagasan tentang barang dagangan yang dijual di bagian tertentu.

Misalnya, Department Store yang menjual Garments memiliki departemen yang berbeda seperti bagian pakaian anak-anak, pakaian wanita dan pakaian pria. Atau department store yang hanya menawarkan pakaian anak-anak mungkin memiliki bagian yang berbeda untuk kelompok umur yang berbeda. Stop Pembeli memiliki banyak bagian seperti perhiasan, kosmetik dan parfum, pakaian dalam pakaian wanita - pakaian India dan pakaian Barat, dll.

(B) Toko Khusus:

Jenis toko ritel semacam itu hanya menawarkan kategori produk tertentu. Pengecer khusus berurusan dengan lini produk terbatas atau bahkan tunggal dan lebih fokus pada kedalaman lini produk yang dilakukan olehnya. Misalnya, Pengecer yang menjual Mebel, Cat, Artikel Hadiah, Kartu Ucapan, Produk Susu, Sepatu, Cat, Pompa Bensin, Bunga, dll. Restoran Vegetarian Murni, Restoran Cina, Warung Teh, Toko Roti. Konsultan atau ahli yang menangani bidang tertentu seperti Ahli Bedah, Dekorator Interior, Agen Asuransi, dll.

(c) Toko Varietas:

Menawarkan berbagai macam barang umum. Ini lebih berfokus pada varietas, yaitu, lebar campuran produk dan kurang pada kedalaman lini produk. Variety store menawarkan lini produk yang lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan department store tetapi tetap saja mereka dapat sangat bersaing dengan department store dengan menawarkan lebih banyak variasi dengan harga lebih murah. Toko-toko seperti itu disukai oleh para pelanggan yang ingin berbelanja 'semuanya dalam satu atap.'

Pelanggan ini tidak ingin mengunjungi beberapa toko untuk persyaratan yang berbeda. Mereka sadar tentang variasi terbatas yang tersedia di masing-masing kategori tetapi tetap mereka lebih suka berbelanja di sana karena kemudahan dan menghemat waktu.

Misalnya, Warehouse Club menawarkan berbagai lini produk tetapi jangkauan terbatas dalam setiap lini produk (kedalaman) dan diskon lebih banyak.

5. Dengan Jumlah Garis Produk yang Dibawa:

Pengecer dapat diklasifikasikan berdasarkan jumlah lini produk yang ditangani. Pengecer dapat menjual satu lini produk atau dia berurusan dengan jalur terbatas atau beberapa lini produk.

Toko eceran dapat:

(a) Toko Barang Dagangan Umum

(b) Toko Jalur Terbatas

(c) Toko Single Line

Sebagai contoh, toko umum atau toko kelontong khas menawarkan banyak produk, yaitu, itu berurusan dengan berbagai lini produk. Department Store dan Variety Store adalah contoh dari beberapa baris. Toko susu hanya menjual produk susu atau toko furnitur menawarkan variasi hanya furnitur, yaitu, mereka berurusan dengan lini produk tunggal tetapi secara mendalam. Toko Khusus adalah contoh dari satu baris.

Beberapa pengecer menawarkan lini produk terbatas dan lebih fokus pada kedalaman, misalnya, Sports Mart dapat menawarkan sepatu olahraga, pakaian olahraga, peralatan olahraga, makanan bergizi dan minuman kesehatan, nasihat konsultasi kesehatan, dll. Umumnya toko khusus membawa lini produk terbatas dan produk yang dijual terkait. dan tambahan di alam. Toko Khusus, Ruang Pamer Katalog, dan Supermarket adalah contoh dari jalur terbatas.

6. Menurut Tingkat Layanan:

Pengecer dapat menawarkan spektrum layanan penuh atau mereka dapat memperluas layanan terbatas kepada pelanggan. Namun, tingkat layanan sebagian besar dipengaruhi oleh faktor-faktor seperti jenis produk yang dijual, jenis pelanggan, ukuran toko, dll.

(a) Toko Swalayan:

Pelanggan yang ingin melakukan proses penentuan lokasi-bandingkan-pilih sendiri lebih suka berbelanja di toko eceran swalayan. Mereka ingin menikmati belanja mereka dan karenanya mereka ingin tidak ada gangguan atau gangguan dalam pembelian dari orang-orang toko. Metode ini cocok ketika toko-toko menawarkan berbagai macam kenyamanan dan barang-barang konsumen. Pelanggan dapat berkeliling di toko, melihat-lihat varietas yang tersedia, dan kemudian memilih produk yang tepat untuk diri mereka sendiri.

Pengaturan ini dapat menghemat ruang toko dan biaya staf penjualan. Tata letak toko harus dirancang dengan hati-hati jika itu adalah toko swalayan. Jika outlet besar menawarkan ribuan barang dan beragam di setiap kategori produk, disarankan untuk memberikan bantuan penjualan dalam menemukan lini produk yang diperlukan. Kalau tidak, pencarian lengkap untuk produk yang dibutuhkan dapat membuat pelanggan frustrasi dan mereka mungkin keluar tanpa membeli apa pun.

Dalam situasi seperti itu, toko ritel pilihan sendiri lebih cocok dibandingkan dengan toko swalayan. Di toko ritel pilihan sendiri, staf penjualan membantu pelanggan hanya dalam menemukan produk yang tepat atau mereka membantu dalam pembelian hanya jika diminta oleh pelanggan. Misalnya, dunia Makanan beroperasi melalui toko swalayan. Pelanggan dapat memilih barang-barang belanjaan, rumah tangga, dan produk makanan yang disimpan di rak, rak, dan konter.

(B) Pengecer Layanan Terbatas:

Mereka melakukan beberapa fungsi pengecer. Mereka memberikan lebih banyak informasi, membantu pelanggan dalam pembelian mereka. Mereka juga menyediakan fasilitas kredit jika perlu. Mereka memiliki biaya operasi lebih banyak daripada toko ritel swalayan dan seleksi mandiri.

(c) Layanan Lengkap:

Pengecer memberikan spektrum layanan penuh kepada pelanggan mereka. Pengecer membantu dalam setiap fase pembelian. Layanan mencakup banyak kegiatan langsung dari pelanggan memasuki toko untuk layanan purna jual. Layanan lain termasuk pengiriman rumah (gratis), pembungkus atau pengemasan kado, menjahit, mengubah, bantuan keuangan, uji coba gratis, demonstrasi, parkir valet, fasilitas loker, ruang ganti / ganti baju, pengaturan tempat duduk bayi, permainan lucu, wahana untuk anak-anak yang datang bersama pelanggan, dll.

Mereka membantu pelanggan dalam proses Locate-Compare- Select. Singkatnya, pengecer layanan penuh melepaskan semua fungsi pengecer. Misalnya, di beberapa toko garmen besar, bantuan belanja pribadi disediakan untuk pelanggan, yaitu, staf penjualan atau ahli di toko pertama-tama berbicara dengan pelanggan, memahami kebutuhan, psikologi, sifat dan anggaran mereka.

Kemudian mereka merekomendasikan produk yang tepat untuk pelanggan, yang menghemat usaha dan waktu belanja. Karena itu, pelanggan puas dan mereka membawa citra yang baik tentang toko ketika mereka mendapatkan perhatian pribadi dan produk yang tepat.

7. Dengan Strategi Harga:

Pengecer mengikuti strategi penetapan harga yang berbeda. Mereka mengubah strategi mereka dengan mempertimbangkan faktor-faktor seperti tingkat persaingan, faktor lingkungan, tujuan laba, strategi penentuan posisi, dll. Dalam praktiknya, banyak pengecer menggunakan teknik harga campuran.

(a) Toko Diskon:

Pengecer ini berbeda dari toko yang menawarkan diskon dan skema sesekali untuk periode terbatas. Mereka secara teratur menjual produk dengan harga lebih murah. Mereka membeli dengan harga reguler dari grosir. Tetapi mereka bekerja dengan margin yang lebih rendah dan mereka menjual dalam jumlah besar.

Karenanya mereka dapat menjual produk standar dengan harga lebih murah. Banyak orang memiliki kesan yang salah tentang toko diskon bahwa kualitas produk yang dijual lebih rendah sehingga harganya lebih murah. Saat ini diskon ritel telah memasuki barang-barang khusus seperti toko buku, barang tahan lama konsumen. Misalnya, Wal-Mart dan K Mart adalah toko diskon terbesar dan populer di AS.

(B) Toko Off-Harga:

Tidak seperti toko diskon, pengecer off-price membeli dalam jumlah besar. Mereka umumnya membeli langsung dari produsen dan karenanya dapat memanfaatkan diskon jumlah massal. Mereka juga bekerja dengan margin rendah dibandingkan dengan pengecer lainnya. Karenanya mereka dapat menawarkan barang dagangan dengan harga murah. Produk yang dijual melalui toko-toko ini berkualitas tinggi tetapi umumnya sudah usang (ketinggalan zaman), banyak ganjil, sisa, dihentikan, surplus ekspor atau ekspor ditolak dan barang tidak teratur.

Ada tiga jenis utama pengecer off-price - (i) Factory Outlet atau Showroom Perusahaan (ii) Toko Ritel Independen (iii) Klub Gudang atau Klub Grosir. Perusahaan pakaian dan alas kaki biasanya menggunakan bentuk ritel ini. Mereka membuang lot aneh melalui toko mereka sendiri, yaitu, factory outlet. Misalnya, Nike, Reebok, Athlete menjual produk reguler dan ganjil mereka melalui outlet mereka sendiri.

(c) Toko Harga Tetap:

Mereka juga dikenal sebagai toko satu harga. Umumnya mereka menjual barang hadiah, barang-barang praktis, kosmetik, dll. Produk-produknya dari kisaran harga rendah hingga menengah. Toko-toko ini menawarkan produk dengan harga tetap. Mereka memperbaiki beberapa kisaran harga yang bahkan terdengar menarik bagi pelanggan. Produk disusun dan disimpan bersama di rak sesuai dengan harganya.

Setiap produk memiliki label harga. Pelanggan dapat memilih dari varietas yang tersedia dalam kisaran harga yang terjangkau baginya. Ini mengurangi waktu dan upaya belanja mereka karena tersedia dalam anggaran mereka. Tidak perlu bantuan dari staf penjualan karena ada lebih sedikit ruang untuk ambiguitas.

8. Menurut Ukuran Toko:

Pengecer dapat diklasifikasikan berdasarkan ukuran toko yaitu area fisik toko. Ukuran bervariasi dari toko sudut kecil hingga hypermarket besar. Keputusan ukuran toko dipengaruhi oleh banyak faktor - terutama oleh jenis produk yang dijual dan biaya ruang toko. Namun, negara yang berbeda mengikuti norma yang berbeda pada 'ukuran', yaitu, toko ritel yang lebih besar di satu negara mungkin tidak dianggap sebagai toko yang lebih besar di negara lain.

Mempertimbangkan skenario India, kami dapat mengklasifikasikan toko ritel sebagai:

(a) Toko Kecil:

Toko Pojok (biasanya toko pan-bidi India), Toko Umum, Toko Khusus, Toko Satu Harga, Kios Jalanan, Kios Pameran, Penjaja dan Penjual Keliling, Pedagang Kecil, dll. Misalnya, Toko Kelontong, Kios Buah dan Sayuran, Es Ruang Perawatan Krim, Warung Teh, Pusat Perbaikan dan Perawatan Mobil, Toko Tukang Cukur, Salon Kecantikan, Gimnasium, dll.

(B) Toko Besar:

Department Store, Supermarket, Hypermarket, Mega Marts, Toko Rantai, Toko Koperasi Konsumen, Showroom Katalog, Showroom Eksklusif, Rumah Pemesanan Surat, dll.

9. Berdasarkan Lokasi:

Kegiatan ritel dapat dilakukan di lokasi tetap di toko-toko. Namun, pengecer seluler, pedagang asongan atau penjaja tidak memiliki lokasi tetap untuk kegiatan ritel.

(a) Pengecer Toko Tetap:

Semua jenis dan ukuran gerai ritel memiliki tempat toko tetap. Pengecer lokasi tetap dapat membuka toko di daerah perkotaan, di pinggiran kota, di pusat perbelanjaan atau mal besar atau sebagai toko yang berdiri sendiri yang berdiri sendiri dan tidak terhubung ke pengecer lain. Misalnya, Toko Umum, Pusat Perbelanjaan, Toko Rantai, Supermarket, Toko Diskon, dll. Semua pengecer dengan berbagai ukuran, format, dan kategori yang memiliki tempat tetap untuk operasi mereka adalah Pengecer Toko Tetap.

(B) Pengecer Mobile atau Itinerant:

Mereka tidak memiliki lokasi tetap untuk kegiatan ritel mereka. Misalnya, Penjaja dan Penjual, Penjual Kaki Lima, Warung di Pameran atau Pameran, dll.

10. Metode Operasi:

Konsep ritel konvensional terbatas pada toko ritel, yaitu struktur batu bata dan mortir. Diasumsikan bahwa ritel memerlukan beberapa toko fisik, baik tempat tetap atau seluler. Namun, metode operasi lain seperti ritel non-toko juga ada. Saat ini, telah menjadi dasar penting untuk klasifikasi pengecer.

(a) Pengecer Toko:

Semua pengecer dari berbagai ukuran, kategori tetapi melakukan operasi mereka di toko fisik adalah Pengecer Toko.

(B) Pengecer Non-Toko:

Mereka tidak memerlukan toko fisik untuk kegiatan ritel. Beberapa metode ritel non-toko sudah cukup tua. Berbagai bentuk baru terus muncul. Ritel non-toko menjadi lebih populer saat ini. Certain methods of non-store retailing are widely accepted by the customers due to their convenience. Non-store retailing is gaining more attention as it eliminates the cost of a store. There is no need of maintaining a large sales force.

Some non-store retailing methods are given below:

(i) Direct Selling /Multi Level Marketing (MLM)

(ii) Online Retailing/Web Retailing/Retailing

(iii) Telemarketing – Telemarketing is a form of direct marketing. Information about the products/services is given and orders are booked over a telephone. There are some complaints about this method and several constraints for selling through this method.

(iv) Teleshopping / Television Home Shopping – In India the companies like Asian Sky Shop, Tele Shopping Network, Jaipan, Kawatchi Group, etc. use private cable Television channels for advertising their products.

(v) Direct Mail Marketing and Catalogue Marketing – Retailers need not have any office or outlet for selling the goods. They send the catalogues to the potential customers and book the orders. Retailers forward these orders to the manufacturers. This method is not much used in India, and still restricted to some standard industrial products and a few branded consumer goods.

(vi) Automatic Vending Machines – There is no human interface in selling the products. Small products are dispensed through the coin-operated machines. For example, ATM, PCO Coin Boxes, etc.

11. By Location of Facilities or a Cluster:

Retailers can be classified based on the location of their facilities. Retail store can be a freestanding store that stands alone and unattached to other retailers or it can be a part of the cluster.

(a) Freestanding Stores:

The stores those stand alone and unattached to other retailers. They are not in the shopping complex and not a part of the cluster. They may be located in the residential areas. They are situated at the scattered individual locations.

(b) Fixed Location Stores:

Retail Store can be one of the outlets in the shopping mall, shopping arcade, shopping complex, and shopping centers, where many other different retailers are located. These stores are part of the neighbourhood cluster where other retailers are located. They are located in a planned shopping center, which is an integrated unit of different types of stores to satisfy customers' needs.

For example, HUB is one of the largest shopping malls in Mumbai. It has many large retail outlets such as multiplex, McDonald's, Subway, Foodmall, etc.

(c) Temporary Stores:

In the exhibition, fairs or shopping festivals, many shops/stalls are temporarily set up for a limited period. Many small retailers have their stalls in the general fairs or specialized fairs. For example, a retailer can have a food stall in the shopping festivals, trade fairs and industrial exhibitions, which are general fairs and wide variety of products are sold by different types of retail shops. As well as he can have his food stall in the food festivals, which is a specialized fair and many food retailers will have their shops.


Types of Retailers – Classified on the Basis of Ownership and Strategy

The decade of the 20005 will witness many dramatic changes in retailing. Many of these changes will affect the types and classifications of existing retail institutions. These institutions are generally based on some type of classification system that mirrors the retailer's business operations.

For example, a retailer that specialises in getting the consumer a product or service in the most convenient way possible could be classified as a convenience retailer. Think of how many different retailers you know that specialise in convenience products. You have probably thought of 7-Eleven, Stop-and-Go, or perhaps even Sheetz or Loaf-and-jug. What would you call retailers that specialise in the sale of food products?

If you say “supermarkets, ” you are correct. There is some overlap among the types of retailers that exist and also some differences in the way they are classified. For example, a convenience store and a supermarket may both be classified as food retailers.

It is important to understand the types of retail institutions because they have a competitive impact on business. With this knowledge, managers are better prepared to develop comprehensive competitive analyses for use in their retail businesses. Retail professionals must strive to stay current with the numerous changes in their environments that may affect their businesses as well as their professional lives. Remember the Wal-Mart neighbourhood market concept.

1. Retailers Classified on the Basis of Ownership :

One of the first decisions that the retailer has to make as a business owner is how the company should be structured. This decision is likely to have long-term implications, so it is important to consult with an accountant and attorney to help one select preferred ownership structure.

In making the choice, the following aspects need to be considered:

(i) Retailer's vision regarding the size and nature of his business.

(ii) The level of control he wishes to have.

(iii) The level of 'structure' they are willing to deal with.

(iv) The business's vulnerability to lawsuits.

(v) Tax implications of the different ownership structures.

(vi) Expected profit (or loss) of the business.

(vii) Whether or not one is required to re-invest earnings in the business.

(viii) Retailer's need for access to cash from the business for personal use.

We now take an overview of the some basic legal forms of ownership for retailers:

(i) Sole Proprietorships :

The vast majority of small businesses start out as sole proprietorships. These firms are owned by one person, usually the individual who has the day-to-day responsibility for running the business. In this case, the retailer owns all the assets of the business and the profits generated by it. He also assumes complete responsibility for any of its liabilities or debts. In the eyes of the law and the public, the retailer is one and the same with the business.

(ii) Partnerships :

A partnership is a common format in India for carrying out business activities (particularly trading) on a small or medium scale. A business unit is generally carried out through a partnership. There is no restriction on a company's participation in a partnership, but this is rare in practice. In a partnership, two or more people share ownership of a single business. As in case of proprietorships, the law does not distinguish between the business and its owners in partnership.

The partners should have a legal agreement that sets forth how decisions will be made, profits will be shared, disputes will be resolved, how future partners will be admitted to the partnership, how partners can be bought out or what steps will be taken to dissolve the partnership when needed.

It is hard to think about a 'break-up' when the business is just getting started, but many partnerships split up at crisis times and unless there is a defined process, there will be even greater problems. They must also decide up-front how much time and capital each partner will contribute, etc.

(iii) Joint Venture :

A joint venture is not well defined in the law. Unless incorporated or established as a firm as evidenced by a deed, joint ventures may be taxed like association of persons, sometimes at maximum marginal rates. It acts like a general partnership, but is clearly for a limited period of time or a single project. If the partners in a joint venture repeat the activity, they will be recognised as an ongoing partnership, and will have to file as such and distribute accumulated partnership assets upon dissolution of the entity.

(a) Taxable Income – The taxable income of a venture is determined in the same manner as in a company. Interest and remuneration payable to the ventures are treated as profit participation and added back in arriving at the venture's taxable income.

(b) Taxation of a Foreign Venturer – A foreign venturer is taxed in the same manner as an Indian venturer, subject to the higher tax rate in the case of a non-resident corporate venturer.

(iv) Limited Liability Company (LLC) :

The LLC is a relatively new type of hybrid business structure that is now permissible in most states. It is designed to provide the limited liability features of a corporation and the tax efficiencies and operational flexibility of a partnership. Formation is more complex and formal than that of a general partnership. The owners are members, and the duration of the LLC is usually determined when the organization papers are filed.

The time limit can be continued if desired by a vote of the members at the time of expiration. LLC's must not have more than two of the four characteristics that define corporations – limited liability to the extent of assets; continuity of life; centralisation of management; and free transferability of ownership interests.

(v) Independents :

An Independent retailer operates only one retail establishment – The majority of these stores are owner or family managed. The case of entry into this type of retailing makes the independent retail store attractive to those with few capital resources. Although independent retailers make up 80 percent of all retailers, their sales represent only 40 percent of retail sales.

Independent retailers have the advantage of being able to respond quickly to their customers' needs and wants. In addition, the owners of independent retail operations usually have many community contacts and are active in local chambers of commerce. They rely on these connections to generate business within the community. Because many independents are located in neighbourhoods and rural locations, rental expenses tend to be less than for stores located in major shopping districts.

Due to the smaller size and location, independent retailers have greater opportunities than other types of retailers to build customer relationships. A downside to being an independent retailer is the inability to capitalise on economies of scale; therefore, the independent's prices are usually higher than those of larger corporate chain stores.

Another disadvantage is a lower level of expertise among personnel. Because independents are traditionally smaller than corporate chains, they have a smaller personnel base. They have fewer resources for hiring and training, qualified experts in each of the functional retail areas — IMC, buying, management, and accounting.

(vi) Chains :

Corporate chain stores operate multiple (more than one) retail stores. Although the majority of chain operations are small, the bulk of sales in retailing come from the larger chain stores such as Wal-Mart, Sears, and Home Depot. Many chain stores are divisions of larger companies. Intimate Brands Company, for example, owns a number of chain stores, including Victoria's Secret and Bath & Body Works. JC Penney Corporation owns 1, 049 domestic and international C. Penney department stores in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Mexico; 54 Renner department stores in Brazil; and the Eckerd chain of more than 2, 600 drugstores in the United States.”

The biggest advantage of operating a chain store is the ability to reduce costs through economies of scale. By purchasing in large quantities, the big chains can purchase products at reduced costs, thereby gaining the ability to pass on the lower costs to their customers. The large-volume purchases also allow these retailers to negotiate with suppliers for a lower per- product cost.

In addition to lower costs for purchases, the large chains generally use computerised systems for inventory control, ordering, and theft control. By reducing the costs associated with these functions, the chains can, once again, pass the savings on to their customers in the form of lower product and service prices.

Due to their size, chains have the advantage of using information technology more efficiently than smaller retailers. Many large chains, such as Office Depot and Target, can monitor instantly what is currently selling and what remains in inventory. Technology also allows chains to link directly with suppliers and have merchandise shipped when it falls below a given level.

Finally, chains are able to hire and train the “best and brightest” minds in the retail business and have specialists for each functional area within the business. For example, chains can have specialists assigned to the buying function as well as the selling function. Chain store operations also have some disadvantages. The biggest drawback is the cost associated with running a large operation.

As the chain's size increases, so do its financial commitments. Furthermore, many chain operations are slower to respond to environmental problems due to bureaucracies typical in larger businesses. Another disadvantage is the difficulty in tailoring the product assortment to different geographic areas. To take advantage of economies of scale, chains often purchase the same products for all their stores.

Independents and chain operations come with unique sets of advantages and disadvantages. The disadvantages, when understood, can be minimised or eliminated by good management, however.

(vii) Franchises :

A franchise is a contractual agreement between a franchisor and a franchises. This agreement allows the franchises to operate a retail establishment using the name and (usually) the franchisor's operating methods. Simply stated a franchisor is the owner of a franchise and can be a wholesaler, manufacturer, or service provider. McDonald's, for example, is a franchisor.

McDonald's creates contracts with individual owners of restaurants and allows the owners to use the McDonald's name. The franchises is the owner of the restaurant who has a contract with McDonald's to operate the establishment under the McDonald's name and (usually) follow McDonald's operating practices.

Depending on the contract, the franchises pays the franchisor a fee plus royalties, typically based on sales, for the right to own and Operate the business in a particular location (generally geographical). In return, the franchisor offers the franchises expert assistance in site selection, building requirements, IMC, employee or managerial training, and advice or requirements for product or service offerings.

The franchises receives all profits from the operation of the retail business after paying the royalty and thus is motivated to try to increase sales as much as possible. Because franchisors have more expertise in their areas and have greater resources, they generally design the systems for the operation of the franchised business.

In a franchise program, the parties gain from the increased size-of the organization and are able to share resources while dividing costs associated with running a retail operation. In comparison to other types of retailers franchisors' networks grow rapidly with few capital and managerial resources, while franchisees gain 'instant' expertise as well as a large market presence.

During the past two decades, franchising has been split among product, business, and trademark franchising. In product franchising, the franchisee agrees to sell the franchisor's products and services. In business franchising, the franchises follows– the McDonald's model, wherein a lot of interaction goes on between frarichisor and franchises.

The franchisor provides all assistance necessary to carry out the business functions (advertising, training, site selection, accounting, planning, and other executions) while at the same time listening to the needs and wants of its franchise holders. In trademark franchising, the franchises acquires the franchisor's identity and utilises the trademarks developed by the franchisor.

The transportation industry, in particular the automobile industry, exemplifies both product and trademark franchising. General Motors allows its dealers to sell certain products (usually divisional, such as Chevrolets or Pontiacs) and to use its trademark while selling these products. The main advantage of franchising to franchisees is that each owner (franchisee) can own and operate his or her own business with a smaller capital outlay than would be possible without joining the franchise team.

In addition, franchising breaks down a barrier to entry into the retail market by allowing the franchises to sell established brand names and products. Franchisees can also achieve economies of scale through their association with a larger, more powerful buying group, thereby bringing down their cost per unit.

Finally, the franchises gets specialised training in the functional areas of retail operations, such as advertising (IMC), retail information systems (RIS), inventory control procedures, employee/managerial development and training ;and the right to exclusivity in selling the national or regional product or service.

(viii) Leased Departments :

Another form of retail ownership is the leased department. A leased department consists of space in a larger retail store (such as JC Penney) that is rented to an outside vendor. The retail business that leases the space runs that area as if it were a small business within the larger business unit. It is generally responsible for all retail functions (in many cases including the fixtures of the leased area). In addition, the lessee pays rent for the space. Examples of leased departments often include jewellery and shoe departments in large department stores.

Because many larger stores lack the expertise for a given product line-for example, jewellery — they get the advantage of greater expertise within the store. The stores are also assured of having a product that their customers need or want. The lessee has the advantage of established customers and customer traffic for their products and services. In addition, many costs can be reduced for the lessee, such as security and parking.

(ix) Cooperatives :

There are three major types of cooperative store arrangements (also called co-ops): retail-sponsored cooperatives, wholesale-sponsored cooperatives, and consumer cooperatives. To overcome many of the disadvantages associated with being a smaller, independent retailer, some retailers band together to create a retail-sponsored cooperative, an organization that allows centralised buying and overcomes other problems involved in running a small retail operation.

Through centralised buying, member retailers can take advantage of the price savings that accompany large purchases from vendors. In addition, retailers can improve their operating efficiency by sharing methods developed by the cooperative organization. An example of a retail-sponsored cooperative is Carpet One, a national cooperative of independent floor retailers.

A wholesale-sponsored cooperative is developed, owned, and run by a group of wholesalers. The wholesaler groups generally offer integrated retail programs to smaller, independent retailers. The wholesalers may offer the independents services such as warehousing and transportation. In addition, members receive additional services (many fee based) such as site selection, store displays, and other merchandising methods. An example of a wholesale- sponsored cooperative is Blooming Prairie (www(dot)bpcoop(dot)com), which has been distributing natural foods throughout the Midwest since 1974.

In a consumer cooperative, the consumers themselves own and operate the retail establishment. Generally, consumer cooperatives come about because members believe they can offer products and services at a lower price than traditional retailers. Often these consumers believe there is a need in the marketplace traditional retailers are not serving.

It may be, for example, that a group of consumers believe a traditional retailer isn't being environmentally friendly and in response join forces and form a co-op more responsive to environmental concerns. In the banking industry, consumer cooperatives have emerged in response to a perceived lack of sensitivity to the consumer by traditional banks. These cooperatives are known as credit unions.

Suppose you and your classmates have been discussing the high cost of textbooks. You decide that you can offer textbooks cheaper than the traditional publishing houses, so you go into business. Your first job is to create a company and look for substantial company investment. Next, you elect company officers and establish the amount of time each “employee” needs to devote to running the business. You need managers and personnel to sell and buy the products (textbooks).

In addition, you need an accountant and perhaps some retail and marketing professionals. Finally, you may want to hire a lawyer to make sure you are compliant with all laws and regulations involved in running your business. You need to find an acceptable site and negotiate rates for rent or purchase.

In the end, you and your investors will share the profits you have earned through the development of this cooperative. You may discover that it takes a lot of time, effort, and money to sell textbooks through a cooperative and that they may not be as overpriced as you previously thought.

2. Classification by Strategy :

Retail stores are often classified by the types of strategies they employ in selling their goods and services.

This section is divided into two major strategic categories:

1. General merchandise retailers and

2. Food retailers.

1. General Merchandise Retailers :

General merchandise retailers are involved, obviously, in the sale of general, nonfood merchandise. Almost any nonfood item falls into this category. This article discusses the major types of general merchandise retailers. According to the US Census Bureau, general merchandise sales in the United States were over $450 billion for the year 2002, making general merchandise retailing a powerful retail institution.

(i) Department Stores :

Department stores are large retailers that carry a wide breadth and depth of products. In addition, they offer more customer service than their general merchandise competitors. Department stores are so named because they are organized by departments — such as juniors, men's wear, or lingerie.

Each department acts as a 'ministore.' The department is allocated sales space and managers and sales personnel that pay particular attention to their departments., Often departments are responsible for their own IMC, which is coupled with the store's overall IMC executions.

Department stores often are the anchors of major shopping centres. Macy's, Nordstrom, Bloomingdale's, Saks Fifth Avenue, JC Penney, and Dillard's are some of the larger department stores. Most, but not all, department stores are parts of a large chain.

Department stores have a perceptual advantage because they use IMC more than most other types of retailers. Department stores utilize newspapers, magazines, radio, television, and direct mail to deliver their marketing communications. Due to overstoring, most of the promotional budgets are geared to sale advertising. Couponing, historically used by grocery stores, has been used to generate sales. Unfortunately, the use of coupons diminishes profits and creates a situation where consumers do not buy unless they receive some type of discount.

In recent years, department store sales have slowed because of the appearance of specially retailers and full-line discount stores such as Target, Kmart, and Wal-Mart. Strategies for success in department store retailing include expanded customer service, sales training for sales personnel, exciting IMC (especially at point of sale), and the elimination of nonproductive, slow-selling products.

A movement is under way in department store retailing to generate more research in the area of consumer information to be used to create better customer relations. In addition, department stores have moved toward greater centralisation in their buying and IMC areas. A key to successful retailing in department stores is the use of store brand names to develop customer loyalty.

In an attempt to retain and attract new customers, department stores are being more innovative. For example, Macy's invested $100 million to make over 42 of its stores. The renovations included shopping carts, bright signage, customer price-scanner stations, and lounges. Saks Inc. partnered with Smith & Hawken to set up garden boutiques in 243 stores, and Sears, Roebuck and Co. brought Lands' End clothing into its stores and changed its electronics department to include high-end items.

(ii) Discount Stores :

Full-line discount stores can also fall under the US Census Bureau definition of a department store. The difference between a department store and a full-line discount store lies in the service and merchandise areas. Discount stores generally offer limited customer services but have merchandise priced below that of department stores. In addition, the products sold at some discount stores tend to be less fashionable than similar merchandise carried at larger department stores. Wal-Mart, Target, and Kmart are the world's largest discount retailers.

The main strategy employed by the discounter is to develop an image of high-volume, low-cost products. Since strong national discount retail chains began in the 1960s, they have taken a large share of the market away from traditional retailers. This trend continues. Discount retailers' sales climbed from $2 billion in 1960 to over $300 billion in 2001. Wal-Mart is the nation's leading discounter with 2001 annual sales of $220 billion, followed by Target ($39 billion) and Kmart ($37 billion). The 2002 sales numbers were $280 billion for Wal-Mart, $ 40 billion for Target, and $36 billion for Kmart.

A key factor spurring the growth of discount retailers is value consciousness. This change began in recessionary periods but has cut across all economic climates and income levels. The rise in discount retailers has been due in part to the attention they have paid to their core competencies, such as low prices and a wide selection of products.

Many customers no longer see any added value in paying higher prices at traditional department stores. The department stores have lost their differentiation of quality customer service. Thus, discount retailers have captured a significant share of the overall general merchandise market.

(iii) Specialty Stores :

Specialty stores carry a limited number of products within one or a few lines of goods and services. They are so named because they specialise in one type of product, such as apparel and complementary merchandise. Specialty stores utilize a market segmentation strategy rather than a typical mass marketing strategy when trying to attract customers. They tend to create a market niche for their product assortments. Although they do not carry a large number of product lines (width), they offer many products within each line (depth). Specialty retailers tend to specialize in apparel, shoes, books, toys, auto supplies, jewellery, and sporting goods.

Customers frequent specially stores because of the extensive assortments and personal service provided. For example, the Great American Spice Co. boasts 3, 200 items including Ashwagandha root powder and Kittens' Big Banana hot sauce. The online store has over 25, 000 recipes. Specialty stores' staff tends to be more knowledgeable about the products sold.

In addition, specialty stores often offer a more physically comfortable shopping atmosphere. The larger specially stores include Borders Books, Toys “R” Us, Gap, Circuit City, Office Depot, and Best Buy. Smaller specially stores include GNC (vitamins and other food supplements), Hallmark, The Body Shop, and The Rocky Mountain Chocolate Factory.

In recent years, specially stores have seen the emergence of the category killer. Category Killers (sometimes called power retailers or category specialists) are generally discount specially stores that offer a deep assortment of merchandise in a particular category (books, toys, shoes, sports items, etc.). Blockbuster Video, for example, offers a large selection of DVDs and VHS tapes at a relatively low price.

Other examples include Babies “R” Us and Toys 'R' Us. Some shoppers do not want a 'huge' store atmosphere. Therefore, many category killers have created additional retail venues that carry some of the same merchandise but are downsized to give the customer a smaller, more intimate store. Home Depot, for example, has created a number of smaller stores (called Villager Hardware) to satisfy those customers who prefer the smaller store format.

(iv) Off-Price Retailers :

Off-price retailers resemble discount retailers in that they sell brand-name merchandise at everyday low prices (EDLP). Off- price retailers rarely offer many services to customers. The key strategy of off-price retailers is to carry the same type of merchandise as traditional department stores but offer prices that can be 40 to 50 percent lower.

To be able to offer lower prices, off-price retailers develop special relationships with their suppliers for large quantities of merchandise. Inventory turnover is the key to a successful off-price retailing business. Because of this, the buying strategy developed and executed by off-price retailers is very aggressive.

In addition to purchasing closeouts and cancelled orders, off-price retailers negotiate with manufacturers to discount orders for merchandise that is out of season or to prepay for items to be manufactured, thus reducing the buying prices of those items. Because off-price retailers do not ask the manufacturers for additional services such as return privileges, advertising allowances, or delayed payments, they are often able to get reduced prices for the merchandise they purchase.

There are many types of off-price retailers, including outlet stores. Manufacturers, department stores, or even specially store chains can own off- price stores. Stores owned by the manufacturer are usually referred to as factory out- let stores. One-price stores, such as dollar stores, are also considered off-price retailers. This type of store offers every product at the same price.

Consumers like these stores because they know exactly how much each product costs. In each of these stores, most merchandise is discounted for the reasons, or the merchandise has been specifically made to sell at a lower price.

In addition to outlet stores are closeout retailers, which sell broad assortments of merchandise that they purchase at closeout prices, and flea markets, where many vendors sell used as well as new and distressed merchandise.

(v) Food Retailers:

There are many types of food retailers. To make their classifications easier to understand, this section is broken down into the main types of food retailers that operate in the United States and around the world. The premier association for food retailing is the Food Marketing Institute (FMI). FMI conducts programs in research, education, industry relations, and public affairs on behalf of its member companies-food retailers and wholesalers.

To learn more about this important group, access their website at www(dot)fmi(dot)org. In addition, Saint Joseph's University, in Philadelphia, has a very strong academic program in food retailing and marketing, with a wealth of information and experts in the area of food marketing. For more information, write to Erivan K. Haub School of Business, Saint Joseph's University, 5600 City Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19131-1395.

To remain competitive in the mature food retail business, many retailers are carrying merchandise outside their traditional lines. “As the mass merchandisers industry begins to mature, this channels vigorous focus on food as a vehicle for growth results in super centers that are beginning to look similar to conventional grocery stores.

The conventional supermarket channel, in turn, has fought back with an expanded offering of general merchandise and various other peripheral departments that are beginning to look a lot like the super centre format. The net result is a blurring of the retail channels.” Nevertheless, there are general categories into which food retailers fall.

(vi) Conventional Supermarkets :

Conventional supermarkets are essentially large department stores that specialise in food. According to the Food Marketing Institute, a conventional supermarket is a self-service food store that generates an annual sales volume of $2 million or more. These stores generally carry grocery, meat, and produce products.

A conventional food store carries very little general merchandise Supermarkets first appeared in the 1930s, when food retailers found they could increase the size of their operations to persuade customers to make purchases by offering more products at lower costs. Piggly Wiggly was the first self-service store (opened in 1916); the first supermarket was King Kullen Grocery Company in New York (1930).

In 2002, there were about 33, 000 supermarkets in the United States, accounting for approximately $411.8 billion in sales. Average weekly sales per supermarket were $361, 564.26 Chain Supermarkets accounted for $340.5 billion in sales, representing 82.7 percent of the total $411.8 billion. One benefit that accompanied the development of supermarkets was increased Impulse buying.

Impulse purchases are those that haven't been planned. Shoppers at conventional supermarkets generally prepare a list of items needed for their households. While in the supermarket, however, they may find some tempting items that weren't on the list and may purchase them on the spot, or by impulse.

The key to successful supermarket sales is high inventory turnover. Because supermarkets have a great deal of competition from convenience stores, warehouse stores, and superstores, they must develop an effective strategy to keep their customers coming back.

To compete effectively, many supermarkets have developed intensive IMC programs that offer their customers many types of promotions — such as coupons, advertisements, fliers, free samples, and customer affinity cards. The strategic use of couponing, coupled with other promotions such as double or even triple manufacturer coupon values, is called hi-lo pricing.

Other supermarkets do very little promotion; instead they rely on consistently low-priced merchandise sales. By selling the merchandise at the basic same low price each day, they are utilising a strategy known as everyday low pricing, or EDLP.

On a day-to-day basis, the listed prices at an EDLP supermarket are lower than those at a promotional supermarket. At a promotional supermarket, customers must rely on their coupons and take advantage of the store's promotional activities to keep their overall purchase costs lower.

(vii) Superstores:

One of the biggest trends over the past twenty years in food retailing has been the development of superstores. Superstores are food-based retailers that are larger than the traditional supermarket and carry expanded service dell, bakery, seafood, and nonfood sections. Superstores vary in size but can be as large as 150, 000 square feet. Generally they are no smaller than 20, 000 square feet.

Wegmans Food Markets, Inc., is an example of a superstore, although the stores refer to themselves as supermarkets. Typical stores run 80, 000 to 130, 000 square feet and carry more than 60, 000 products, compared to an average of 40, 000 products for supermarkets. Typically included in Wegmans stores are bakeries, ready-to-cook meat and seafood entree sections, international foods, photo labs, floral shops, and a fun centre for kids to play in while their parents shop.

(viii) Combination Stores:

Because shoppers have been demanding more convenience in their shopping experiences, a new type of food retailer has been emerging. Called a combination store, this type of retailer combines food items with nonfood items to create a one-stop shopping experience for the customer.

In general, customers can find general merchandise along with food products and can take all these products to a common checkout area. Combination stores emerged in the mid-1960s and early 1970s and grew rapidly. Combination stores can be as large as 100, 000 or more square feet.

In 1934, Hendrik Meijer started one of the first combination stores in the United States, in Greenville, Michigan Melier (www(dot)Meijer(dot)com) is a family- owned and operated retailer with 157 stores throughout Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, and Ohio. Meijer customers can select from a full range of attractively displayed food products, as well as toys, sporting goods, clothing, health and beauty aids, domestics, furniture, gifts, small appliances, and other products.

(ix) Super Centres and Hypermarkets :

A super centre is a combination of a superstore and a discount store. Super centers developed based on the European hypermarket, an extremely large retailing facility that offers many types of products in addition to foods. In super centers, more than 40 percent of sales come from nonfood items.

Super centers are the fastest-growing retail category and encompass as much as 200, 000 square feet of area; Wal-Mart is the category leader with a 74 percent share of super centre retail sales. Wal-Mart is focusing on the food industry to spur growth. By 2005, Wal-Mart expects food sales to contribute more than 20 percent of total divisional sales.

The key to a successful super centre is sales of food products at very low prices to stimulate customer traffic and sales of nonfood items with higher markups. The market area for super centers is much greater than that for the other food retailer classifications. This means customers are willing to drive longer distances to visit super centers than to visit any other type of food retail centre.

The major disadvantage of super centers is that customers may not want to frequent them for small purchases. Because the centers are so large, it is often difficult to find the exact product one is looking for in a reasonable period of time.

(x) Warehouse Clubs and Stores :

Warehouse clubs and warehouse stores (also known as club stores) were developed to satisfy customers who want low prices every day and are willing to give up service needs. These retailers offer a limited assortment of goods and services, both food and general merchandise, to both end users and small to midsize businesses.

The stores are very large and are located in the lower-rent areas of cities to keep their overhead costs low. Merchandising within the store is almost nonexistent, and pallets are used extensively. Steel shelving and concrete floors are common.

Generally, warehouse clubs offer varying types of merchandise because they purchase products that manufacturers have discounted for a variety of reasons (overruns, returns, and so on). Warehouse clubs rely on fast-moving, high- turnover merchandise. One benefit of this arrangement is that the stores purchase the merchandise from the manufacturer and sell it prior to actual, having to pay the manufacturer.

Typically, warehouse clubs and stores charge their customers an annual membership fee. These fees vary but generally are around $30 to $40. Warehouse clubs may require that customers be affiliated with a government or business entity, such as a credit union, local business, or university. Many warehouse clubs do not carry perishable items, or carry a limited amount, because of the costs associated with storing them. Among the larger warehouse stores are Costco Wholesale, Sam's Club, and Bj's Wholesale Club.

(xi) Convenience Stores :

As the name suggests, convenience stores are located in areas that are easily accessible to customers. Convenience stores (also called c-stores) carry a very limited assortment of products and are housed in small facilities. The major sellers in convenience stores are cigarettes, accounting for about 25 percent of in-store sales, and nonalcoholic beverages, which amount to about 15 percent. Owners of convenience stores locate in neighbourhoods and try to intercept consumers between their homes and places of employment.

The strategy convenience stores employ is 'fast shopping' – consumers can go into a convenience store, pick out what they want or need, and check out in a relatively short time. They don't have to search for the products they want, and they don't have to wait a long time in line to pay. The vast majority of products purchased at convenience stores are consumed within an hour after purchase.

Due to their high sales, convenience stores receive products almost daily because convenience stores don't have the luxury of high-volume purchases, and because many of the products are impulse purchases, most products are priced relatively high.

In recent years, many convenience stores have added gasoline to their product mix; gasoline now accounts for the majority of sales for those stores carrying this product. In addition, convenience goods such as milk, eggs, tobacco, soft drinks, and beer are among the largest sales items.

(xii) Limited-Line Stores :

Limited-line stores, also known as box stores or limited-assortment stores, represent a relatively small number of food retail stores in the United States. Limited-line stores are food discounters that offer a small selection of products at low prices. They are no-frills stores that sell products out of boxes (or shippers). Limited-line stores rarely carry any refrigerated items and are often cash-and- carry, accepting no checks or credit cards.

Limited-line store customers do their own bagging and frequently bring their own bags or purchase bags from the retailer. In a limited-line store, the strategy is to price products at least 20 percent below similar products at conventional supermarkets. Many of these stores focus “on private labels, which eliminates the need for manufacturers to recoup the costs of advertising and sales promotions.”

Aldi is an example of a successful limited-line retailer. Located in Europe and the United States, Aldi has about 570 stores in the United States alone. Its product line includes a little more than 700 most-often-used products for the average home. In comparison, most full- line grocers offer more than 25, 000 items.


Types of Retailers – Classified on the Basis of Size, Geographic Location, Product-Line Method and Form of Ownership

1. Size – That is according to their sales volumes during a particular period, say a year. Retailing may be both a small scale and a large scale operation; and it may be integrated and non-integrated.

2. Geographic Location – The stores classified according to these criteria tell about consumer buying habits. The retailers may be found in rural trading centre, large cities, outlying suburbs, or along the main streets of a town.

3. Product-line handled – That is according to the goods dealt with. They may be classified – (a) General merchandise stores (such as department stores, dry goods stores, variety stores, and general stores) dealing in furniture, home furnishings, appliances, household goods, groceries, drugs, convenience goods and shopping goods; (b) single-line stores, dealing in assorted group of products (such as grocery stores, furniture stores, medical stores, building material stores, hardware stores, sporting goods stores, cloth stores and book stores); they may also carry two related lines, such as men's and women's clothing; (c) Limited-line or specialty stores, which carry a limited variety of products such as shopping or convenience goods — apparel, shoes, gifts and decorative accessories selling stores.

4. Form of Ownership – On this basis we have independent stores and corporate chain stores; less important are leased department, company stores, consumer co-operatives, etc.

5. Method of Operation – On this basis retailers may be of two types; (a) full-service retailers, where the sale is generally made at the counter, especially of high- fashion goods or where a salesman's demonstration, explanation or fitting is needed. Such retailers are super markets, and discount retailers (b) non-store retailing, where buyers and sellers meet and transact their business at the buyer's home or at some other non-store location, known as door-to-door or house- to-house selling. Major forms of non-store retailing are mail order selling, automatic vending and personal selling on a door-to-door basis.


 

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